Believer's Home Page


A Literal Translation of the New Testament


Page:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7





By Hal Dekker 



Last page update:  2021.07.27



Back to 1 Sam. 17:40...


"bag (keli)" - This is the prominent word God uses all through Exodus for the containers and "vessels" which were used to safely and securely store and transport all the precious valuables and furnishings of the Tabernacle. This is the Hebrew word God uses for the shepherd's "bag" David carried, to hold those five smooth stones, which are types to you and I.  If the smooth stones are types to disciples, then the keli is a type to believers also, who hold within them the precious ability of the gift of holy Spirit, power unto good works, and to love people as Jesus loved people.  Keli is also a type to the one body of Christ, God's new temple, his new dwelling place God built with his own hand.


"in his scrip (yalquwt)" - God gives us even more specific information as to this bag (keli) David carried, that among keli it was a specific type of keli, translated in KJV as a "scrip ( yalquwt)."  A yalquwt was a specific type of keli, similiar to a women's purse in design, but more like a saddle bag in function.  It was worn around the neck or over the shoulder.  David stored all his most valuable personal possessions he needed to carry with him, including any food, herbs and medications, etc., within his yalquwt, pronounced yal-koot.  It was within his yalquwt' that he safely kept the five smooth stones.  God keeps us very close to him in his yal-koot' so to speak.


"and his sling (qela) [was] in his hand" - As David approached Goliath he had only two things in his hands, a maqqel - rod or switch, and a qela - a sling.  He does not have a howitzer, a bazooka, or a rocket launcher.  David carried not even one item of military armor or weaponry as he went near to Goliath.  Why does David, who fellowshipped with the Father intimately, believe he doesn't need any military paraphernalia?  Because of his belief; belief in God isn't considered in the wisdom of men.  But belief in the power of God (1 Cor. 2:5) is part of the wisdom of God.  This is one of the main concepts believers are to get out of this passage of scripture.


Consider what apostle Paul says in 2 Cor.:


2 Cor. 4:7 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) we hold (echomen) the (ton) treasure (thēsauron) of this (touton) [knowledge, v6, RE] in (en) earthen (ostrakinois) vessels (skeuesin), in order that (hina) the (hē) hyperbole (huperbolē) of the (tēs) work of inherent power (dunameōs) may be (ē) of the (tou) God (theou), and (kai) absolutely not (ou) out (ex) of us (hēmōn)!


In the new birth from aboveone gets the gift of holy Spirit, the spore of God!.  It's the "treasure."  It's valuable! It's the power of God within you.  Don't worry about trying to beg, coax, or tempt power out of God, if you're born from above you already have it in you, because the God is in you.  If your heart is right according to his will, in any given situation, God's Spirit will work within you to:


- bring his great and precious promises to pass;

- to supply your need and be your sufficiency;

- to give you the power and ability to be abundant in life;

- to be victorious over the devil and demon spirits, and the ability to love and bless others! 


Our abilities are of God, not of ourselves.  In anything in life, our sufficiency, our abundance and our victories are absolutely not because of how big and strong and great we are, but because of how big and strong and great God is within us.  So, don't let your own personal ability have any weight in life's situations.  This is what this record teaches us!  We need to believe it!


Back to 1 Sam. 17:40...


"and he drew near to the Philistine" - David was a believer in the power of God.  He went near to the Philistine to resist him, and to make a special delivery, one smooth stone.


David was energized by God's Spirit in him as he approached Goliath.  The level of mental and physical ability that the Spirit of God energized in David at this time would probably have qualified him as being the world's greatest athlete.  Whatever genetic ability a person has from birth has absolutely nothing whatsoever to do with gaining success in spiritual competition, "in order that the hyperbole of the inherent power may be of God, and not of us (2 Cor. 4:7)."  It is by God's power only, energizing in us, that gives us the ability to defeat the devil and demon spirits (James 4:7). 


One's physical genetics do not limit God's power and ability to deliver, neither do they enhance it.  The level of power manifested, and how it is applied is God's prerogative.  But, we have the privilege of working together (2 Cor. 6:1) with the Father, through the son.  The nine manifestations of the Spirit listed in 1 Cor. 12, are all manifestations of the one gift of holy Spirit within you.  They are of the Spirit.  They come from the power of God's Spirit, his spore in you being energized by him when you believe and love (See Acts 3:12).


1 Sam. 17:41  And the Philistine came on and drew near (qareb) unto David.  And the man that bare the shield [went, AE] before him.


"drew near (qareb)" - The context in which God uses this word in its first five usages in scripture, are in the context of an unholy "stranger", an alien of Israel, who "draws near (qareb)" to the holy Tabernacle, he "shall be put to death" (Num. 1:51, 3:10, 3:38, 17:13, 18:7).  The Philistine, an unholy stranger and an alien to Israel, came near to David, and he was put to death.  Let him who has ears to hear, hear.


In 2 Pet. 1:13-14, apostle Peter refers to his physical body as a "tent", referring to himself as a container for the indwelling Spirit of God in him, God's gift of holy Spirit.  Receiving the gift of holy Spirit is also referred to as being "born above (anothen, from above) out of [an] incorruptible spore (1 Pet. 1:23)", spiritual "sperm" of God.  This indwelling Spirit makes an individual holy, a holy place of God (2 Cor. 6:16), and set apart from "natural man" who is unholy. 


God's Spirit within David, upon condition of David's belief in his heart, made David an agent of God, and a holy one, and a temporary holy place of God.  When Goliath, an unholy one, "drew near unto David" God's Word had to come to pass (Num. 1:51, 3:10, 3:38, 17:13, 18:7) when David acted upon his belief of God's Word.  The Philistines didn't have a chance fighting against the God.  The Philistines brought their defeat upon themselves through their own offensive attack against God's people, Israel!


If Jesus was greater than the sacred place (Mat. 12:6) because the fullness of the God dwelled in him bodily (Col. 2:9), then what about born from above believers with both the heavenly Father and Christ in them (Col. 1:27)?  Are they not greater than the "temple" also, they being the true prophesied "tent" of God, the raised up "tent" of David?  It's a new day for believers when we wake up and realize that the God has made us new creatures of a new creation, on account of what he has placed inside of us, himself! 


The only thing great about the old covenant Tabernacle and Temple was that God was in them occasionally.  Sure, they were beautiful to look at, but powerless without God.  When Israel corporately no longer believed, God could only temporarily dwell in certain individuals who still believed his Word, his prophets, and David in this record.  See my studies, "God's Desired True 'tent', his 'Domed-Roof House'", and "The Symbiotic Union - God Living in a Mortal Being".


According to God's Word, born from above believers are greater than the Tabernacle that Israel built in the wilderness, greater than the Temple that Solomon built, greater than the rebuilt temple after the captivity, and greater than any remains of the temple that are in Jerusalem now.  Why?  Because God's Spirit, his paternal spore, is dwelling in the parts of the one body of Christ, in us, now.  Believers are made to be the very righteousness of God (2 Cor. 5:21)!  God says in his Word, loud and clear, that Christ Jesus is one greater than the tabernacle, which makes all of the parts of his one body also greater than the tabernacle (Mat. 12:6)! 


Isn't that fantastic?  WOW!  We're loaded inside!  If God be for us who can be against us (Rom. 8:31)?  We need to keep going to the Word and building this in our minds daily, until it finally starts sinking in deep and we start believing it.  That's being transformed by the renewing of your mind to God's Truth (Rom. 12:2).  That's putting on the mind of Christ (Phil. 2:5).


1 Sam. 17:42  And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was [but] a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance.


"And when the Philistine looked" - God may be giving us a figure of speech meaning, that at first glance the egotistical Philistine didn't believe what he saw, that a young lad, only a shepherd boy, was sent out to "fight" with him.


"he distained him" - Just as the Philistine was starting to believe that a shepherd boy was really sent out by the armies of Israel to be his match, he and the rest of the Philistine armies started realizing what an insult it was that Israel believed all they needed to defeat the Philistine champion was a young, supposedly inexperienced shepherd boy. Here's a great example of God choosing a supposedly "weak one" of the cosmos to confound a so-called "mighty one" (1 Cor. 1:27).


"and ruddy, and of a fair countenance" - David did not have the beat-up, scared-up look of an experienced warrior, but rather without spot and blemish, as a sacrificial lamb going to the alter.  Here is another aspect of David as a type of Jesus Christ, this time not as the "shepherd" of his people, but as the "lamb" which takes away the sin of the people.  David, as a living sacrifice, always brought his belief, and praise on his lips, to the "alter", as offerings to God (Heb. 11:6, 13:15-16).  


1 Sam. 17:43  And the Philistine said unto David, "[Am] I a dog (keleb), that you come to me with staves (maqqel)


And the Philistine, by his gods, cursed (qalal) David.


"[Am] I a dog, that you come to me with staves?" - Same as in verse 40 (maqqel), meaning a rod, a branch, a switch used to direct animals.  Jehovah knows the difference between his children and the children of disobedience.  And Jehovah is no respecter of a person's face value (Col. 3:25), but of conditions; the most important being belief in God's Word, obedience to him, and doing good works out of your love for him and your fellow man.  The Egyptians, during the time of the exodus of Israel, failed at all three conditions, and in reference to their low standards of quality of life, God used the first occurrence of "dog" keleb in the scriptures:


Exod. 11:7  But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog (keleb) move his tongue, against man or beast; that you may know how the Lord puts a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.


For at least the last forty days (verse 16), a period of testing and probation, "The Philistine" has wagged his tongue against the armies of the living God, and has earned the title "dog" as did the Egyptians.


"by his gods, cursed (qalal) David." - qalal should have been translated "belittled", or "esteemed as insignificant."  After belittling David, the Philistine said that the power of his gods, Dagon being their chief god, was greater, and concluded that David didn't have a chance to defeat him.


1 Sam. 17:44  And the Philistine said to David, "Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field."


Satan makes one last attempt to draw David's focus off Jehovah, his covenant Word and power, to get David to think on the five senses level, to get David to question and doubt for just one tiny moment, the integrity and power of Jehovah . This was Satan's last card to play, his best effort.  He knew he had to break the believing of just one man, one pesky little believer, David, then this would give Satan the opportunity to wipe out the Christ line from which would come Jesus Christ, the promised seed, the coming redeemer.  Satan utterly failed, and the Philistine with his own lips pronounces judgment (verse 44) upon all Philistines.


I believe that after the Philistine spoke, Jehovah gave David revelation, word of knowledge and word of wisdom, and, that revelation is summed up by what David says back to the Philistine in verses 45 - 47.


1 Sam. 17:45  Then said David to the Philistine, "You come to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield.  But I come to you in the name of the Jehovah of hosts, the Elohim of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied.


"in the name of" - An ancient idiom which means, "on behalf of", and "in and through the authority of".  I believe another way to better understand this ancient idiom is to think of it as David coming to the Philistine with God's Word, speaking God's Word to Goliath.  David was using God's Word, David's belief in it, to defeat Goliath and the Philistines.  David spoke God's Word on his lips, to Goliath, using it as a sword of the Spirit. 


David believed God's Word in his heart, and confessed it with his mouth.  This is the same practical application of our belief as we used to receive our new birth from above in God's Spirit (Rom. 10:9-10).  As we believe in our hearts we are to confess with our mouths.  This is the example God gives us in Genesis chapters 1-3, as he spoke things into being.  David spoke on Jehovah's behalf because David believed his Word, and loved him.  And because of that, God energized his Spirit mightily within David, as his messenger, his agent.


In numerous places throughout the scriptures God gives us names he uses for himself, each name emphasizing a different benevolent characteristic of himself in his dealings with different hosts of his creation.  He wants us to know his names which define different ways he loves us.  That's why he gave them to us. 


By studying the contexts of the different usages of God's names, the number and variety which he uses, we are better able to know and understand the greatness of his love and covenant blessings for us, and his yearning desire to be for us as a Father is with his children. 


In Psalm 103:2 David says, "Bless the Jehovah, O my soul, and forget not all (any of) his benefits."  Each of the "Jehovah" names represents a major category of covenant benefits from the God.  A good way to "forget not" may be to regularly review his names in their associated scripture passages.  This is an excellent way to be comforted, blessed, and build belief in your heavenly Father into your heart.


In translations, I believe it to be the work of the devil throughout time to try and cover up God's greatness by replacing his precious names with titles.  A name is not a title, and a title is not a name.  The translators defaced the AV translation by replacing his proper name "Jehovah" with the title "Lord", 6,510 times, by the title "God" 4 times, by a variant 1 time, and only 4 times did they translate it "Jehovah" correctly!  What a disgrace!  These are forgeries of the scriptures.  This is yet another huge example of triune godhead-based theological obfuscation being deliberately "translated" into Bible translations.  Is it plausible that Bible translators don't know the difference between a name and a title, or that they can't read the ancient Hebrew texts, in order to translate them correctly?  No.  Therefore, the erroneous mistranslation and obfuscation is done deliberately!


Apparently what "mortals spoke being brought under [authority, AE] of holy Spirit from God (2 Peter 1:21)," was not good enough for the translators.  The translators must think themselves wiser than God, to conclude that God made a mistake while giving revelation to his holy mortals and prophets, on what they were to say and write!


Today, more than ever, the devil has publishing houses pumping out violated versions of God's Word, Bibles, which contain, from cover to cover, far more serious alterations in translation than substituting titles for names.   The basic center of focus of the alterations apparently targets specific identifiers of both the God and his son Christ Jesus, in order to obfuscate the differences in their biblical identities.  Almost every major and minor point of pure orthodoxy in the biblical texts, about God's new covenant, and about the one body of Christ, have been altered to cause believers' beliefs to be out of covenant, the new covenant, and thereby in error, and thereby giving the God no need to reciprocate by doing his covenant responsibilities in return.  


1 Sam. 17:46  This day will Jehovah deliver (cagar) you into my hand.  And I will smite (nakah) you, and take your head from you, and I will give the carcasses of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth, that all the earth may know that there is an Elohim in Israel.


The God was still with Israel, because at least two men we know of, Jesse and his son David, still had belief in their hearts, and they were looking to their God, our God, for deliverance.


"This day" - Before the end of the day.  In ancient times the day ended at 6:00 PM in the evening when the new day began.  God is never late.  He's always able to deliver whenever someone with belief fulfills God's conditions, according to his Word, and specific covenant, which then allows him to act.


"deliver (cagar)" - to close, to shut up, to shut in.  Jehovah is going to shut Goliath's mouth.


"into my hand" - "Hand" in the scriptures always refers to "control," and the reader should ask who's in control, what's being controlled, and what's the source of the power used for the control?  Here, it's an allusion meaning that control of the situation will now shift from Goliath and the Philistines to the God and the children of Israel.  Fear and hope are the two categories of thoughts being controlled.  Jehovah Elohim and Satan are the two, big and little, sources of power.


"smite (nakah)" - to strike.  David is striking "the Philistine" with God's Word.


"all the earth shall know that there is an Elohim in Israel." - This will be news to the armies of Israel (who are consumed with fear), as well as news to the Philistines.  After the confrontation is over, and the news spreads throughout the lands, "all the earth" including those not present at the battle scene, will know "that there is a (singular, one) God (Elohim) in Israel."


Some believe that there was a great company of all Israel on hand hoping to view the battle.  This is not likely since the armies of Israel were consumed with great fear (v. 24), which no doubt led to their belief that they and all Israel would soon become slaves of the Philistines.  The opposite is more likely to be true, that all Israel was packing their bags to leave the country, from fear of becoming slaves to the Philistines.


1 Sam. 17:47  And all this assembly shall know that the Jehovah saves not with sword and spear: for the battle [is] Jehovah's, and he will give you into our hands."


"all this assembly" - refers to only those that are present at the battle scene, i.e. the armies of the Philistines and the armies of Israel, and some close relatives of both.  "All the earth" in verse 46 refers to both those present and not present at the battle scene.


"shall know" - not question, not doubt, but know as an absolute fact that it is so.


"Jehovah's" - God acting as a Father with his children, according to his covenant promises.  The Father watches out for every child, and will keep all his covenant promises with that one individual, with the prerogative to bless others related to the circumstances as well.


"the battle [is] Jehovah's" - the greater power that determines the outcome of the conflict belongs to Jehovah.


"he will give you into our hands" - i.e. "he will give us control over you."  The believer, with God's Spirit and Christ in him (Col. 1:27), has the power and control over his adversaries in every situation.


1 Sam. 17:48  And it was when the Philistine arose, and went and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted and ran toward the ranks to meet the Philistine.


"the Philistine arose" - the Philistine must have been sitting in order to conserve precious strength.  If he were out in the open sun, all his bronze/brass armor would become very hot, especially the helmet, and he could literally begin to cook in his own armor.  It is likely he was sitting with his helmet off, and in the shade of his body-length shield which someone else (v. 7) carried for him.


"David hasted" - in many places in scripture, after believing men of God receive revelation to perform a task, they make haste.


"ran toward the armies" - Since David had no fear, he could have just walked toward the ranks to engage the Philistine.  But, he ran because the Spirit of God worked in him mightily, and he was excited about seeing the power and deliverance of Jehovah come to pass again, this time to save all Israel.


"to meet" - Heb. qir'ah, to encounter, to engage.


1 Sam. 17:49  And David put his hand in his bag, and took from it [a] stone, and slang [it], and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.


"And David put his hand in his bag" - This verse is a series of metaphors for actions the believer takes in drawing and using the knife of the Spirit.  God could have simply said, "David slung a stone at the Philistine and killed him."  From that we would have understood that David would have necessarily needed to put his hand in the bag, and take out a stone, in order to sling it at the Philistine, right?  But, God, appearing redundant, goes to the trouble to mention the detail that, "David put his hand in the bag," and "took from it a stone," and "slang it..."  Why?  I can think of two reasons;  


First, actions are the results of belief.  When a person truly believes something, he or she acts upon it.  The action is the proof of one's belief.  This is what Heb. 11:1 means:


Heb. 11:1 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) belief (pistis) is (esti) [an] understanding (hupostasis) of practical issues (pragmatōn) being hoped for (elpizomenōn), [an] evidential proof (elegchos) [of practical issues, RE] absolutely not (ou) being seen (blepomenōn)!


This is the Law of Belief (Rom. 3:27-28), that every believer in their spiritual growth and walk must learn.  No one can get an understanding of any spiritual issue of the God without an exhaustive study of any of those issues throughout God's entire revealed Word.  Many of those issues take a lot of time to search out.  How important is an 8-5 commitment to mammon (Mat. 6:24; Luke 16:13; Col. 3:24)?


Secondly, the word hand in the scriptures, as mentioned before concerning v. 46, always refers to control, and the reader should ask who's in control, what's being controlled, and what's the source of the power used for the control?  Here, it's a metaphor (based upon the verb put) meaning that control is now in the "hand" of David, i.e. David via Elohim.  Using the knife of the Spirit will put the believer in control.


Jehovah gave David word of knowledge (information that was impossible for David to know by his five senses) and word of wisdom (how to act upon that knowledge).  But David by his free will had to act upon it, he had to move his feet, move his body, which are all metaphorically referred to as his "hand", and in this case it actually included his hand.   David had to "put", i.e. move on his belief.  When you lift your "hand" (take action) to act upon Jehovah's Word, to take control in any given situation, God will energize his Spirit within you (Judges 7:11, 9:24).


"and took from it [a] stone" - Here's another seemingly redundant phrase, that should be closely scrutinized, and it contains a key referencing more wonderful scriptures chock full of more wonderful truth!  David "took from it" again referring to David taking action upon his belief of what God told him, "a stone", "stone" being a type to Jesus Christ.  Believers with "Christ in them" are become "stones" also. 


Let's take a moment now to work the word "stone" a little deeper in the scriptures, to discover the wonderful truths God has given us concerning ourselves as parts of the true "tent" of God, the one made without men's hands, but which the God makes with his own hand. 


Put your finger in 1 Sam..


Consider a record in Matthew:


Matt. 21:42 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) says (legei) to them (autois), “Have you absolutely not at any time read up (oudepote anegnōte) in (en) the (tais) writings (graphais), ‘[A] stone (lithon) of which (hon) the ones (hoi) building [a] domed-roof house3618 (oikodomountes) disapproved (apedokimasan), this one (houtos) was caused to become (egenēthē) into (eis) [a] head (kephalēn) of [an] angle1137 (gōnias)!


From alongside3844 (para) of [the] Lord (kuriou) this one (hautē) caused himself to come to pass (egeneto)!


And (kai) [this one] is (estin) [an] amazing one (thaumastē) in (en) [the] eyes (ophthalmois) of us (hēmōn)!’” 


The world discounts and rejects what, according to their five senses, appear to be "foolish" or "weak" things/people of the world.  But the Father Jehovah takes the "foolish" and "weak" things of the world and uses them to confound the so-called "wise" and "mighty" people.  Jesus Christ warned the chief priests and Pharisees about their taking him too lightly!


Mat. 21:44 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the one (ho) having fallen (pesōn) upon (epi) the (ton) stone (lithon), this one (touton) shall be altogether broken (sunthlasthēsetai).


But (d’) upon (eph’) which one (hon) perhaps (an) it may fall (pesē), it shall crush (likmēsei) him (auton).”


The Philistine had special armor and weaponry that was custom designed for him because of his unusual size and strength.  From a warrior's point of view his armor must have been tremendously impressive.  But David picked five smooth "stones" from the brook, which from the five senses point of view were "weak" as weapons of warfare.  But with just one of those "little stones" God made David more powerful than the Philistine, or any warrior on the battlefield.


Consider a record in 1 Corinthians:


1 Cor. 1:27 (LIT/UBS4) BUT (alla), the (ho) God (theos) caused himself to call out (exelexato) the (ta) moronic ones (mōra) of the (tou) cosmos (kosmou), in order that (hina) he may put down to shame (kataischunē) the (tous) wise ones (sophous)


And (kai) the (ho) God (theos) caused himself to call out (exelexato) the (ta) disabled ones (asthenē) of the (tou) cosmos (kosmou), in order that (hina) he may put down to shame (kataischunē) the (ta) strong ones (ischura)!


1 Cor. 1:28 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ta) unwell-begun ones (agenē) of the (tou) cosmos (kosmou), and (kai) the ones (ta) having been rejected as absolutely nothing (exouthenēmena), the (ho) God (theos) caused himself to call out (exelexato)!


And (kai) [the God caused himself to call out, RE] the ones (ta) not (mē) being (onta), in order that (hina) he may idle down2673 (katargēsē) the ones (ta) being (onta);


The ones "not being" in the past are now, since the day of Pentecost, the one body of Christ.


1 Cor. 1:29 (LIT/UBS4) so that (hopēs) not (mē) any (pasa) flesh (sarx) may cause itself to boast (kauchēsētai) in sight (enōpion) of him (autou)!


Was the Philistine boasting in his flesh, bragging about what he was going to do to David and the armies of Israel in vv. 8-10 and 42-44?  Didn't the Philistine despise David in v. 42, and curse him in v. 43?  The Philistine said, "I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field" in v. 44.  But Goliath's gods had not enough power against the one, true God, Jehovah Elohim, to make it literally occur.  Goliath had the power of no god working in him, and he was ranting out of his own human ego-maniacal self-righteousness.