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A Literal Translation of the New Testament


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By Hal Dekker 



Last page update:  2021.07.27



1 Sam. 17:27  And the people answered him after this manner, saying, "So shall it be done to the man that kills him."


"And the people answered him after this manner, saying," - None of Israel's own mighty soldiers stepped forward to kill Goliath, so now out of desperation the people set the king's proposition before the little shepherd boy, David, Jesse's youngest son.  Perhaps, according to their reprobate thinking, they hoped the shepherd boy would be foolish enough to try, and lucky enough to succeed.


1 Sam. 17:26  And David spoke to the men that stood by him, saying, "What shall be done to the man that kills this Philistine, and takes away the reproach from Israel? 


For who [is] this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?"


"And David spoke to the men that stood by him" - David is perhaps the youngest person present, a shepherd boy among older supposedly wiser, trained, hardened, soldiers, along with his brothers.  David boldly spoke words from his heart, offering up to God the sacrifice of the praise of his lips (Heb. 13:15-16) which is well pleasing to God.  This shows David to be more disciplined in his mind toward God, and thereby wiser than the others, and this by implication puts them all to an open shame.


"and takes away the reproach from Israel?" - Goliath, while asking if there is anyone among the armies of Israel who has a scrotum full enough to face him one-on-one, in hand to hand combat, brings a sort of spiritual pudendum upon Israel, who now finds itself without God to cover them.


"For who [is] this uncircumcised Philistine" - Among the children of Israel, and according to the Mosaic Law, a man's circumcised penis was supposedly considered to be physical evidence which connotes that a man has uncovered his heart towards God, and has opened up his heart toward God to believe in the God and his Word.  Therefore an "uncircumcised" man was considered to be a man having no knowledge of, or belief in, God and his Word, and thereby outside of God's covenant, and thereby a man deserving of God's condemnation.  This is how David began to "size-up" Goliath's ability to defeat him if David was to challenge Goliath.  On account of David's belief in his heart in God's Word, Davis already knew the God was on his side, and so any battle would actually be between Goliath and the God, Jehovah Elohim, and not actually be between Goliath and David, even though it may look that way to other people's five senses.


"that he should defy the armies of the living God?" - David hasn't forgotten God's covenant promise! Goliath isn't more impressive to David than David's God, whom he knows, fellowships with, and calls upon by name when in need. What David didn't know yet, but would know very shortly, is that the "armies of the living God" didn't know the living God, and what confidence the armies of Israel did have (if they had any at all), was in their own flesh and blood ability. David mentions "living God" as opposed to the dead idols that the Philistines worshipped.


"defy" - Heb. charaph, reproach.


"God" - Heb. Elohim, the God of all creation.


James says "faith without works is dead."  So far, there is nothing in this record that states that the armies of Israel did any "works", i.e. took any actions against the Philistines based upon Israel's faith or belief in the "living God," the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.  Therefore, the "faith" or belief of the armies of Israel must be "dead," which means they didn't have any, which means they could soon be dead physically.  That's how and why they became consumed with fear.


The only ones so far who have demonstrated any "works," who have taken any action based upon their belief in the Words of the "living God," is Jesse and David, with the symbolic loaves of bread and cheeses.  God is a living God, so his people should be living, not dead like the Philistine idols, and spiritually dead like the Philistines.


1 Sam. 17:28  And Eliab his oldest brother heard when he spoke to the men, and Eliab's anger burned against David, and he said, "Why have you come here, and with whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know your pride, and the evil (roa) of your heart; for you are come down to see the battle.


David didn't show up with popped corn in hand just to watch the big show! God was calling him up front and center! According to culture and social pecking order, David, because of his social position as only a "shepherd boy", and being the youngest son, didn't have the "social right", according to custom, to say anything. And, as far as speaking for the family of Jesse, Jesse's oldest son Eliab, according to birthright, had the responsibility to speak for the family in Jesse's absence.  What David said, publicly displaced Eliab's social and family position status, which was an embarrassment to Eliab.  Eliab seems more concerned for the retention of his own family position and honor than for the lives of all Israel.  That was one of his own prideful mistakes.


"Why have you come here..." - Eliab questions David's motives, apparently not knowing that Jesse had sent him, and more, that Jehovah Elohim was actually bringing David into position to strike Satan.


"with whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness?" - Eliab publicly and cruelly reminds David of his social status, and not only that he's just a shepherd boy, but that he is not responsible for much (only a few sheep!).  But Eliab's mind apparently  doesn't "see" that it's Elohim's sheep, the children of Israel, who David is sent to protect! 


At this time, if David limited himself to custom and cultural social structure it would have meant the complete ruin of Israel.  Did Jesus Christ break culture and tradition?  Often, and it greatly irritated the Sadducees and Pharisees.  It is always error to obey the implied rules of culture and tradition over obedience to God, our heavenly Father.


"I know your pride (Heb. zadown, to boil as water; i.e. mental turmoil), and the evil (roa) of your heart;" - Eliab makes a grave error in judgment of his brother David, accusing him of having evil brewing in his heart, and causes himself public social embarrassment of his own making.  David is neither evil for obeying his father Jesse, to bring the 10 loaves and 10 cheeses, nor for boldly speaking his belief and confidence that Israel can put its trust in the "living God".  Society, especially those who consider themselves "high" up in it, would like you to believe that you are evil for not obeying their social pecking order.  So, at this moment, in whose heart is evil?  It's in the heart of the one doing the accusing, Eliab's heart!  So far the devil has managed to get David's brother, Eliab, to speak against his own brother David, to try and stop David, when the devil saw that the God had sent David to the front line against the devil and his Goliath.  I have no doubt in my own mind that when the devil saw that the God almighty had sent his "circumcised" adopted son David to the front line, that the possible battle was already lost. 


1 Sam. 17:29  And David said, "What have I done now?  Was it not but a word?"


"Was it not but a word?" - Sure, David had the right to speak a few words with the soldiers who were telling him about what the king would do for the man who kills the Philistine.  Was it the fact that David had actually addressed the soldiers which bothered Eliab?  Or was it the boldness and greatness of the Truth of God's Word which David spoke to them that Eliab didn't like?  Maybe both.  And maybe also Eliab didn't want David getting any ideas about trying to fight Goliath.


1 Sam. 17:30  And he turned from him toward another, and spoke after the same manner: and the people answered him again after the former manner.


David turned from his brother Eliab, to another standing by, and David repeated what he said in verse 26.  And several of the people standing by answered David as they did before in verse 25.  The men saw something in David that surprised them.  They saw that he wasn't full of fear.  He wasn't afraid!  And they began to encourage him to fight Goliath, by continuing to tell him about gaining riches from the King and marrying his daughter.


1 Sam. 17:31  And were heard the words which David spoke, and they were told before Saul, and he received him.


At this time the armies of Israel were totally beaten in their minds, by way of their 5 senses, and there had occurred no physical combat whatsoever!  The only reason Saul was interested in David was because of all the thousands of men in the armies of Israel, not even one other man had decided to step forward.  Saul, who should have been the example of courage to his people should have been the first to volunteer.  But, now Saul had hopes of talking this little shepherd boy into facing Goliath.  What a scumbag Saul turned into at this time.


1 Sam. 17:32  And David said to Saul, "Let not a man's heart fail (naphal) over him, your servant will go and fight with this Philistine."


"fail (naphal)" - to fall, i.e. give up hope.


David had no fear because he saw clearly, beyond the five senses circumstances, choosing to believe in Jehovah Elohim's covenant promise to Israel to be their re-reward, and had confidence in his power to deliver.  David had developed a marriage-like relationship with the Father, a close fellowship relationship.  David knew God wouldn't let him down because David spiritually knew God.  God doesn't hide himself from any man, but will reveal himself to anyone who truly wants to know him.  The God's primary way of revealing himself is through his Word which he has already given to us.


1 Sam. 17:33  And Saul said to David, "You are not able to go to this Philistine to fight with him, because you are a youth, and he a man of war from his youth."


Here's the heart of the problem in Israel at this time - NO SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP!  Saul was walking by his 5 senses, and it set the pattern and low standard to which most all of Israel slid back.  However, as God clearly sets forth in his Word, each individual is responsible before God to keep God's standards, i.e. commandments and statutes, whether "leadership" or anyone else decides to keep them.  Each individual decides for him or herself, and will be held accountable before God as to their own decision.


1 Sam. 17:34  And David said unto Saul, "Your servant has been a shepherd among the sheep, for his father.  And there came the lion, and the bear, and took away a lamb out of the flock,


1 Sam. 17:35  and I went out after him, and struck him, and delivered [it] from his mouth.  And when he arose against me, I took hold of his beard, and struck him, and killed him.


We can gather more understanding of how mightily God worked in David by reviewing 1 Judges 13-14 for knowledge of events in the life of Samson (about 1100 BC), who delivered Israel from the Philistines about one hundred years earlier than these events concerning David (about 1000 BC) recorded here in 1 Sam. 17.


Consider a record in Judges:


Judges 13:1  And again the sons of Israel added to commit evil in the sight of the Jehovah; and the Jehovah delivered them into the hand of the Philistines forty years.


Judges 13:5  For, lo, you shall conceive, and bear a son.  And no razor shall come on his head, for the boy shall be a Nazarite to God from the womb.  And he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines.


Samson is a type also to the promised coming redeemer Jesus Christ.


Judges 13:24  And the woman bare a son, and called his name Samson.  And the boy grew, and the Jehovah blessed him.


Judges 13:25  And the Spirit of the Jehovah began to move him at times in the camp (Mahanedan) of Dan between Zorah and Eshtaol.


Judges 14:5  Then went Samson down, and his father and his mother, to Timnath, and came to the vineyards of Timnath.  And, behold, a young lion roared in meeting him. 

Judges 14:6  And the Spirit of the Jehovah came mightily upon him, and he rent him as he would have rent a kid, and he had nothing in his hand.  And he told not his father or his mother what he had done.


David knew how Jehovah had worked mightily in Samson to strengthen him to kill the lion with his bare hands.  And when David asked Jehovah to strengthen him the same way, to defeat he lion and the bear, Jehovah honored David's request because of his belief, and mightily strengthened him also with physical strength, so he could defeat the lion and the bear.  David knew how Jehovah had worked mightily in Samson to strengthen him to kill a thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass (Judges 15:14-17), and he believed now that Jehovah would strengthen him again the same way as before, this time to kill the Philistine.  Jehovah does not change (Mal. 3:6), and honors those who are upright, who call upon him now. 


Back to 1 Samuel...


1 Sam. 17:36  Your servant slew both the lion and the bear.  And this uncircumcised Philistine will be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living Elohim."


David grew spiritually in his young life through practical experiences of calling upon and believing upon Jehovah in situations, for Jehovah to intervene with his power.  In David's mind, what made this Philistine no more of a threat than the lion or the bear?  The Philistine, "...he hath defied the armies of the living God."  David had the mind set that anyone or anything that defies God or his purposes CANNOT WIN against the power of Elohim! 


That's the goal of the level of belief in God's Word which we should have steadfast in our hearts and minds.  For us, this is putting on the mind of Christ.  "If God be for us, who can be against us" (Rom. 8:31).  It's never how big and strong are we, but how big and strong is God's Spirit within us.  David had learned how to get out of the way to let God's Spirit work in and through him.


1 Sam. 17:37  David said moreover, "The Jehovah that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver (natsal) me out of the hand of this Philistine."  And Saul said unto David, "Go, and the Jehovah be with you."


"the Jehovah" - God has given himself many names in his scriptures, each emphasizing and bringing a different shade of attribute about himself into the context of the scripture.  The "Jehovah" names emphasize his "covenant" relationship, and especially his dealings with his people as a Father with his children, teaching, admonishing, and raising them up, like he has David.


"deliver (natsal)" - to pluck out of the hands of an oppressor or enemy.  God has the power to pluck us out of the hands and grip of our enemies, while he says that no one is able to pluck us out of his hand (Deut. 32:39)!  Do disciples of Jesus Christ believe this or not?


"He will deliver me" - this is the renewed mind mindset, that God "will deliver me", not I by my own physical strength, or genetic ability.  Paul said, "I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me" (Phil. 4:13).  We are workers together with God (2 Cor. 5:21 - 6:1), absolutely not independent agents for God.  Belief in the POWER of God is an acceptable offering to God (1 Cor. 2:5, 2 Cor. 6:7).


1 Sam. 17:38  And Saul clothed David with his apparel, and put a helmet of brass upon his head, and clothed him with a coat of mail.

We know from what God told us earlier that a helmet, body armor, and other equipment weighs a lot.  God's not limited to saving Israel by condition of David putting on all this armor.  The only condition is that a believer take a believing stand against evil.  "Resist the devil, and he will flee from you" (James 4:7b).  The word "Resist" is in the imperative mood, meaning that it is a command.  When you're dealing with the devil you carry out God's Word exactly, because your life and others could depend on it.  But, a disciple must know it exactly, in order to do it exactly.  The God honors his Word when spoken upon our lips.  Speaking invented mortal-made religious stuff, to the devil and or demon spirits, will cause you to loose the battle, and possibly your life, because God does not honor mortal-made religious inventions, which are lies.


1 Sam. 17:39  And David girded his sword upon his apparel, and started to go, but he had not tested (nacah) [it].  And David said unto Saul, "I am not able go with these, because I have not tested [them]."  And David took them off him.


"tested (nacah)" - to test it unto the end that confidence can be put in it.  David was side-tracked there for just a moment by Saul's stupid idea to put his armor on David.


"for I have not tested [them]." - David already had confidence in God to deliver him, to work with him with only his shepherding tools, his staff and sling, that David used daily.  David had already tested these tools, and believed that God could work with him and them to defeat Goliath.


But, beyond these shepherding tools with which David had become skillful, what else had David proved in his life?  He had risen up to the point of great belief in God in his mind, unto experiencing the reality of seeing the power of God come into manifestation in his life, at least twice, once to kill the lion and again to kill the bear.  He had already proven to himself, through his belief, that Jehovah and his power is real!


David's belief brought him to the point of seeing the power of God come into manifestation in his life, and the repeated manifestations of the power of Jehovah in his life brought him to the point of having confidence in God that he was a living God, and could deliver him out of any situation.  David proved Jehovah in his life!  Disciples of Christ Jesus prove Jehovah by believing and doing his will, thus legally forcing the God to act according to his part of his own covenant responsibilities, to make his Word good on all points (example: Mal. 3:10).


God's old and new covenants are covenants of reciprocity, meaning, if you do this then God will do that.  When be believe and then act upon what God says in his Word, then we coerce (in a good sense) God, our heavenly Father, into keeping his end of our covenant relationship with him.  God must act, he has no choice, he must abide by his own righteous rules, or he would demonstrate unrighteousness, right? 


1 Sam. 17:40  And he took his staff (maqqel) in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag (keli) which he had, and in his scrip (yalquwt).  And his sling (qela) [was] in his hand.  And he drew near to the Philistine.


"staff (maqqel)" - a rod, a branch, a switch.  A small branch or switch is often used to get the attention of sheep, to make them go this way or that way.  This is not the same tool as the bronze "staff (kiydown)" that Goliath carried on his back between his shoulders.


"And he took his staff (maqqel) in his hand" - David decided that he would not use Saul's armor, but approach Goliath using the same tools he uses to protect his flock, and with the same tools in hand as when he approached the lion and the bear.  David approached the Philistine with both a switch and sling in his hands.


"and chose him five smooth stones" - David decided how many stones at the most he would need.  David knew from experience from working together with the Father, that if Jehovah chose to use his sling to defeat Goliath, that the chastisement would come swiftly, and that he wouldn't need to hurl a hundred stones before one found the mark.


"out of the brook" - David knew by experience from slinging stones that smooth, round stones flew faster and truer than irregularly shaped stones, and that the higher speed (less wind resistance) of a smooth stone gave it more deadly impact. The stones were made smooth and ready for use by the action of the water in the brook.


David was a believer in the living God, Elohim.  Under the old covenant, before the day of Pentecost, God would allow his Spirit to temporarily dwell within a person upon condition, and that condition was based upon righteousness being "counted (chashab)" unto a person commensurate with that one's amount of belief toward God in one's heart.  Gen. 15:6 is the first usage of chashab; qal, active voice, imperfect mood, meaning the calculation is ongoing, continuous.  God himself does the calculating, so the math is good.  The word, as defined by its use in scripture, broadly means to "measure and determine a numeric value." 


God is just, and he alone had the right to "count" or calculate the amount of believing in an individual's heart.  Then, according to his "count", righteousness was imputed unto the individual, and that righteousness gave that individual the right to receive God's Spirit within them, temporarily, and in proportion to the measure of the "count."  This is why, under the old covenant, different men at different times had different measures of God's Spirit within them.  The Spirit could then manifest itself in the believer under any of seven different categories of manifestation (See 1 Cor. 12).  Two manifestations of the Spirit, of the nine manifestations, speaking in tongues and interpretation of tongues, were not available until the day of Pentecost (Acts 2), but the other seven manifestations were.


We don't know what was God's "count" for David, or how God "counts", but only that David believed from his previous experiences of the Father Jehovah working together with him, that his Spirit energizing in David would make him strong enough to defeat Goliath! 


From the witness of holy scriptures, they portray David as having "a lot" of belief which was great.  This would impute "a lot" of righteousness unto David making him eligible for "a lot" of God's Spirit to dwell in him temporarily, at least until the next "count" (imperfect mood, i.e. action continues) is made by God.  How often God made a "count" of an individual's belief, we don't know.  Only God knows truly what's in a person's heart, and only he knows how great is the love and belief in a person's heart for him.


"and put them in a shepherd's bag (keli) which he had" - These are special smooth stones.  David wanted to take special care that he didn't lose any of them as he went near to Goliath.  If David is taking good care to keep these special stones, because of the special purpose he has for their use, how much more care should we take in valuing the gift of holy Spirit in us which we've been given, because of the special purposes for which we've been given it?  If these stones are types to believers, then how much care is the Father taking to keep us safe, because of the special purposes he has for us in the Ministry of Reconciliation? 


Consider a record in 1 Peter:


1 Pet. 2:1 [LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), you having caused yourselves to put away (apothemenoi) everything (pasan) of malice (kakian), and (kai) everything (panta) of deceit (dolon), and (kai) of actings (hupokriseis), and (kai) of envyings (phthonous), and (kai) all (pasas) down-talkings (katalalias),


1 Pet. 2:2 [LIT/UBS4) as (hōs) babies (brephē) generated at this time (artigennēta) long over (epipothēsate) the (to) logical (logikon) milk (gala) without guile (adolon);


in order that (hina) in (en) it (autō) you may be caused to grow (auxēthēte) into (eis) wholeness (sōtērian),


1 Pet. 2:3 [LIT/UBS4) if (ei) you caused yourself to taste (egeusasthe) that (hoti) the (ho) lord (kurios) [is] [a] benevolent one (chrēstos),


1 Pet. 2:4 [LIT/UBS4) to (pros) whom (hon) you are causing yourselves to become (proserchomenoi) [a] living (zōnta) stone (lithon)!


Truly (men), under (hupo) [authority, AE] of mortals (anthrōpōn), [the stone, ER] [is] [[a] stone, ER] having received disapproval (apodedokimasmenon)!


But (de) alongside (para) God (theō), [the stone, AE] [is] [a] called out (eklekton) honorable (entimon) [stone, ER].


1 Pet. 2:5 [LIT/UBS4) You (autoi) also (kai), as (hōs) living (zōntes) stones (lithoi), you are being built [into, AE] domed-roof houses3618 (oikodomeisthe), [a] Spirit-based (pneumatikos) house (oikos);


 into (eis) [a] holy (hagion) priesthood (hierateuma) to bring up (anenenkai) Spirit-based (pneumatikas) sacrifices (thusias) well received to (euprosdektous) the (tō) God (theō), through (dia) [the sake, AE] of Jesus (Iēsous) Christ (Christou);