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A Literal Translation of the New Testament


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By Hal Dekker 



Last page update:  2021.07.27



The Walk of A Son or Daughter Of God


1 Sam. 17:12  Now David [was] the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehem-Judah, whose name [was] Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men [for] an old man in the days of Saul.


1 Sam. 17:13  And the three eldest sons of Jesse went [and] followed Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons that went to the battle [were] Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah.


1 Sam. 17:14  And David [was] the youngest: and the three eldest followed Saul.


God gives us more numbers here.  Jesse had "8" sons. "8" is a number in scripture that is always associated with newness of life, new beginning, and wholeness.  It's the number stamped upon "Jesus" by his name, with a gematria of 888.  David was not only the youngest son, but the 8th son.  What's God whispering in our ear?  The fact that the number "8" is stamped on David, and that he was a shepherd boy also, indicate that in this record he is a type to Jesus Christ.  David's believing, plus God's energizing of his Spirit in David, and how David used them unselfishly for the benefit of others, are the characteristics of the walk of Jesus Christ that David demonstrated.


1 Sam. 17:15  But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem.


The three oldest sons, Eliab, Abinidab, and Shammah, and the youngest son of Jesse, David, followed Saul to the battle against the Philistines. Since the three oldest sons were the oldest in order of age, and since David returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem, perhaps Jesse's five youngest sons were not considered "old enough" to go to battle. If this is true, then David being the youngest of all eight sons must have been well below the age which was considered "old enough" to fight. That makes this an excellent record to point out the fact that not through the strength of the flesh, but through the spiritual power of God's Word, and a man's belief of it, is a man delivered, and in this case a nation.


1 Sam. 17:16  And The Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.


The adversary, for forty days, taunted and tempted the Israelite armies into making a mistake and fight on the five-senses level.  "40" is the number in scripture which always refers to probation, and/or trial, and/or chastisement. During the flood in Noah's days it rained for 40 days and nights.  Israel wandered for 40 years in the wilderness trying to find their believing and obedience to God.  After 40 years and the death of a whole generation of unbelieving Israelites, Israel collectively as a nation finally became "fit" by their believing to receive and enter into the promised land.  We are to let our old mortal un-renewed mind ways, die off.  For some of us it may take 40 years.  I believe the record of the children of Israel's prolonged attempt to enter into the promised land is a type to each one of our own personal attempts to discover and then enter into the Kingdom of God. 


After Christ's resurrection he showed himself alive in Israel to many witnesses, for 40 days, before his ascension, during which period Israel had another chance to believe that Jesus was the promised seed, the messiah.  As mentioned before, Jesus Christ was tempted by Satan in the wilderness for 40 days, throughout which time Jesus did not sin, but quoted back to Satan what God's Word has said.  In this record Goliath tempts Israel for forty days, to walk by what he suggests, rather than what God has said.


1 Sam. 17:17  And Jesse said unto David his son, "Take now for your brothers an ephah of this parched (qaliy) [corn], and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to your brothers;"


"parched (qaliy) [corn]" - roasted ears of grain, roasted corn. If the scripture here refers to "popped corn" then God indeed has a sense of humor, because in verse 28 David's oldest brother, Eliab, accuses David of just showing up to the battle (perhaps with popcorn in hand!) just to see the big show, while shirking his responsibility of watching the sheep.  In reality, David has come to watch over God's true sheep, Israel.


"ten loaves" - In scripture, "10" is one of the perfect numbers, and signifies the perfection of God's divine order.  "10"represents that nothing is wanting or out of order, but is in perfect harmony with God.  Under the old covenant, "bread", "loaves", "manna", etc. are all used in scripture as types to the coming redeemer Jesus, and represent not only physical nourishment, health, healing and wholeness, but spiritual nourishment as well.


To understand the deeper meaning of "10 loaves" in this passage, respecting Jesse, David's father, to be a very wise man, and therefore up to more than simply sending 10 loaves of bread apart from any spiritual significance, we look to Exod. 30:12-14, wherein every man in Israel who was of the age of twenty or older, was to give a half shekel, 10 gerahs, to the Lord as "a ransom" for his soul.  The number "10" used in scripture carries the associated idea of "a ransom," a payment of money and/or compliance with other demands in order to redeem something.  Bread mentioned throughout the scriptures is very often a type to Jesus Christ's broken body (Mat. 26:26), which was beaten and pulverized for our healing (John 6:31-58) and redemption.  "In his blow he has healed us" (Isa. 53:5).  Jesse, through his knowledge of "bread" as used in scripture as a type to the coming promised redeemer, wishes to offer these ten loaves to God as a ransom for the souls of his sons in battle.  But, God out of his respect to Jesse's act of great belief, accepts the offering of the loaves as a ransom for all Israel!  Jesus said he shall give his flesh for the life of the whole cosmos (John 6:33; John 6:51)!


Jesse looked forward to the coming redeemer, which is why he chose "loaves" to honor the Lord.  This is an incredible act of believing and worship toward God after the order of Melchisedec, which order of priesthood Jesse must have understood.  In Psalm 110:4 David prophesies this.  But, this knowledge must have come down to David through Jesse his father, who understood that a priesthood after the order of Melchisedec never ended throughout the life of the priest, as did courses of priesthoods after Aaron.  Jesse was honoring God whose promised seed, the coming redeemer, would come and be the true high priest forever, for all ages to come.  Jesse's act of believing was done in honor of, and in respect toward God's promised coming redeemer, God's high priest. Jesse's act of believing wasn't based upon the law, the "schoolmaster," but upon what the schoolmaster was trying to teach, belief in God, and his promise of the coming redeemer, Christ Jesus!


Throughout scripture, bread, manna, loaves, and the like are all types of Jesus Christ, and particularly his broken body, "...for the bruising of him you were healed" (1 Pet. 2:24).  Jesse wanted his sons to stay healthy and alive, and to come back from the battle unharmed.  In the East, pledges, commitments, and oaths are often made between men, and between men and God, while dining. This is custom, and a way of life.  For Jesse and his sons, their pledge to God would include re-dedicating themselves to God to keep themselves pure and undefiled from sin throughout the battle, and that they would believe upon God to deliver them from the Philistines.  Jesse understood these things and taught these things to his sons.  He must have been a wonderful father.


"run" - Heb. ruwts, to rush, make haste, run.  Since physical battle could begin at any moment, Jesse wanted to bless God as soon as possible with the ten loaves, as a token of his belief in and hope for the coming redeemer, to secure the return blessings from God upon his sons for their safety.


1 Sam. 17:18  And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of [their] thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.


"ten cheeses" - It is highly likely that this cheese was made from sheep or goats milk.  Goats are closely related to sheep, and like sheep are ruminants (cud-chewers), and eat grasses and shrubs.  Goats can live on sparse growth and can live on land not fertile enough to support cattle or sheep.  Male goats are called rams.


Foods of various kinds are often used in God's Word to metaphorically represent the goodness of God toward his people, and especially the aspect of God's promise to supply all our need. In John 6:48-51 Jesus Christ, in reference to the manna with which God fed Israel while they were in the wilderness, says, "I am the living bread which came down from heaven..."  In scripture, milk and milk products are types of God's Word, and specifically types of God's covenant promises working out. 


Moses, a great deliverer type of Jesus Christ, led Israel out of Egyptian slavery to a promised land flowing with "milk and honey."  Milk is sweet by itself, but the honey in it makes it even sweeter!  In 1 Pet. 2:2 we are to "desire the sincere milk of the Word", and in 2 Pet. 1:4, "Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises..."  It is upon God's Word and his promises that we fix our hope and belief for them to come to pass.  When those great and precious promises come to pass, they are sweeter than milk and honey!


The cheese was sent to the captain of the thousand, under whose authority and command were Jesse's sons.  The number "10" again associates the idea of "a ransom", while the cheese as milk associates the idea of "promise," and especially "receipt" of the promise.  Together they symbolize hope and thankfulness in God's Word and his covenant promises to defeat the enemies of Israel.  This is the message that was sent by Jesse to the captain of the thousand, to have hope and thank God for his Word of promise, that he would keep his Word to deliver Israel now, as in times past.


"look how thy brethren fare" - "look" , paqad, attend to, and "fare", shalowm, peace, i.e. "Attend to thy brother's peace."  Jesse's offering of belief of God based upon his knowledge of God's promise for a coming redeemer, he knew would move God to act according to his Word for the safety of his sons and the children of Israel.  This is an example of a mortal man, Jesse, literally acting upon a promise in and of God's Word to apprehend the benefits of it into manifestation in his life.  Jesse believed that his acting upon his belief would bring life and peace. 


Apostle James says:


James 2:26 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) so be it as (hōsper) the (to) body (sōma) without (chōris) Spirit (pneumatos) is (estin) dead (nekron), thusly (houtōs) the (hē) belief (pistis) also (kai) without (chōris) works (ergōn) is (estin) dead (nekra)!


This believing action that Jesse demonstrated with the 10 loaves and 10 cheeses was not ritual or vain repetition as in man-made religion. Nor was it just a random act of belief on Jesse's part.  But, it indicates a lifestyle of awesome knowledge, belief, and worship of God.  It is an example of the true practical lifestyle of a believer. 


This is not a random hit or miss act of belief that Jesse is trying, it's an example of a lifestyle of a believer going to God's Word, putting on God's Word in his mind, and then acting upon God's Word to see those great and precious promises come to pass.  Jesse fellowshipped with the Father, and the Father with him, habitually.  Jesse didn't just suddenly get religious because this battle occurred.


You men, when you get married and spend time with a woman, do you get to know her after a while?  Absolutely!  And her, you.  After so many years you both get to the point that you almost know what each other may be thinking before any words are spoken.  This is part of understanding the mystery of the one body of Christ in the Word, and is likened unto marriage between a man and woman (Eph. 5:29-33).  As time goes on, living, eating, and sleeping with God and his Word, you get to know him, how he interacts with you in your daily life; you learn what blesses him, what moves him, as he reveals himself to you through his Word, and in you through his Spirit permanently in you.  Soon you develop a walk, a lifestyle of depending on him, believing in your Father. Believing starts to become more and more effortless.  He teaches you, he reveals things about life to you according to your needs, and he raises you up as a Father raises up his son. 


This is what James talked about, the practical application of God's Word in a man or woman's life, acting upon their belief in God's Word, his great and precious promises, with works such as this as Jesse demonstrated.  The walk of believing toward God is not just walking by the Spirit, but it is simultaneously walking with God, and the walk itself is true worship of God.  A born from above believer is not reborn with this lifestyle, it has to be developed, and it begins with discipleship to Christ Jesus. 


The new babe in Christ Jesus has to start renewing their mind to God's Word (Rom. 12:2) to start transforming themselves into this walk of putting on the new, and putting off the old, to begin to "see" Spirit-based things of God's Kingdom, so as to begin to develop this lifestyle of walking by the Spirit as Jesse demonstrates, and as David will demonstrate in the verses to come.


"take their pledge" - David also was to take part along with his brothers, in the offering of belief to God with the loaves.  This tells me that even though Jesse's three oldest sons were old enough for battle, twenty years old and above, Jesse knew that God especially favored his youngest son David, according to David's belief.  Jesse knew which of his sons had a more spiritually developed walk with the heavenly Father.  Jesse knew it was David, his youngest.


"pledge" - Heb. arubbah, means something given in exchange for security. The loaves of bread were offered to God in asking him to keep his sons whole.


1 Sam. 17:19  Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, [were] in the valley of Elah, being consumed with the Philistines.


"being consumed with the Philistines" - The KJV "fighting with the Philistines" is not a good translation, since there never was a formal battle in this record.  "fighting", Heb. lacham, means to "feed on", to "consume".  In the Hebrew the spelling of the verb is in the Nifal stem, which to me means it is either in the middle or passive voice.  I translate it in the passive voice, "Saul, and they, and all of Israel... were being consumed with the Philistines", since the Philistines were bringing the action of the verb to the children of Israel.  The armies of Israel were being consumed, consumed where, in their minds. What was coming into their minds through their five senses, especially of sight and hearing, was prompting them to develop fear in their minds of the Philistines. 


The fear that was so great in the minds of the armies of Israel, which fear was consuming them, Satan was feeding to them through their own five senses!  How Goliath appeared - the sight of him, and what he said - the sound of him, were like snake venom, paralyzing and dissolving their mental ability to muster courage.


We can act according to the five senses information which is orchestrated by Satan, and is usually a lie, or we can act according to what God says through his Word, or by direct revelation to us via his Spirit which is in us through our new birth above in God's holy Spirit.


1 Sam. 17:20  And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him.  And he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.


"rose up early in the morning" - In Psalm 5:3 David says, "My voice shall you hear in the morning, O Lord; In the morning will I direct (Heb. arak, "set in order") [my prayer] unto you, and will look up ("look out") [for an answer, AE]."


"left the sheep with a keeper" - Jesus Christ has not left us alone, but has left us with the Comforter, the gift of God's holy Spirit.  (See John 14:16, 14:26, 15:26, 16:7)


"as Jesse had commanded him" - David was obedient to his father as was Jesus Christ to his heavenly Father.


"he came to the trench" - David drove his camel (s) or horse(s) right up to the front line where his brothers were, where there was the most danger, and from where everything happening could be seen.  But not much was happening yet, only Goliath's threats, and posturing and maneuvering.


"as the host was going forth to fight" - David could see the men of the armies of Israel maneuvering into position to fight. These "maneuvers" are done to get men in the best position to either attack or repel an attack.  "Maneuvering" is metaphorical for renewing one's mind in preparation for spiritual competition.


"shouted for the battle" - David came just at the time when the captains were shouting out orders to the troops to arrange and position themselves for the battle.


1 Sam. 17:21  For Israel and the Philistines had put the battle in array, armies against armies.


"armies against armies" - Heb., rank against rank.  Each nation's armies were prepared for the other's attack, whether it be by infantry, javelin throwers, archers, or horses and chariots, the ranks were positioned and set as to give them the appropriate defense and/or offensive positions.  In the spiritual contest with the devil, we are to be prepared on all points in our mind with the full knowledge of God's Word, to recognize, respond, and defeat the attack, believing in God's Spirit working in, and through, and around us to keep us whole.  We are to have our thoughts organized according to God's Word, "ranked" in all things that pertain unto life and Godliness (2 Pet. 1:3).  The rightly divided logic and promises in God's Word are to be lined up and ready to go in our minds, "ranked" in our minds, so that we can go in our minds to that discrete subject matter in God's Word which fits the occasion.


1 Sam. 17:22  And David left his carriage (keli - baggage) in the hand of the keeper of the carriage (keli, lit., baggage), and ran into the armies, and came and saluted his brethren.


"carriage" - Heb. keli, means baggage.  David left his baggage with the keeper of the baggage, and ran into the armies to find his brothers, not taking the grain, the loaves, and the cheeses with him.


1 Sam. 17:23  And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spoke according to the same words: and David heard [them].


"Behold" - a figure of speech meaning "Pay particular attention, this is a more highly important point."


"came up" - Goliath was getting so bold by this time that he would come down the side of his mountain, across the valley, and come part way up the mountain on Israel's side.


"...and David heard." - When the armies of Israel heard Goliath's words, the words consumed the armies of Israel with more fear.  But, God's Word now says, "...and David heard."  But when David heard, fear did not consume his mind, as when all Israel heard.  Why not?


1 Sam. 17:24  And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid.


"sore afraid" - The word for "sore", Heb. meod, means "exceedingly exceeding", or "far surpassing".  It is first used in Gen. 1:31.  When God had completed 6 days of rebuilding the heavens and the earth to again make them inhabitable, they were "very (Heb. meod, i.e. exceedingly exceeding, or far surpassing) good (Heb. tobe, i.e. perfect)."


Now, the fear in the minds and hearts of the armies of Israel was GREAT.  They were exceedingly fearful, to the highest degree of fear, that they broke ranks and ran back up the hill because of the sight and sounds of Goliath.  After all the maneuvering the armies of Israel had just done to get all the different troops in place, the infantry, the archers, the javelin throwers, and the horsemen and chariots, Goliath comes back up the hill again and says something, and the troops flee back up the mountain.  What a disgrace! 


Why?  Because the Word says that "All the men of Israel saw the man...."  First they saw the man, then they heard the man, and by this time Satan had the armies of Israel sitting in his hot seat, strapped down, wired up, and was jolting them with doses of high powered fear, right into them through their own senses of seeing and hearing!  They didn't know how to regain control of their own minds, because their minds were too void of God's Word, and their hearts were too void of belief in that absent Word of God.


1 Sam. 17:25  And the men of Israel said, "Have you seen this man that is come up?


Surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, [that] the man who kills him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give to him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel."


"Have you seen this man that is come up?" - Why remark about how impressive is Goliath?  How about how impressive is God!  Hasn't God done many fantastically powerful signs, miracles, and wonders before their eyes, for all to see, many times over?  Hasn't Israel seen the many mighty works of God that delivered them out of slavery in Egypt, then fed and protected them for forty years in the wilderness in spite of their unbelief?  And then he brought them into the promised land, the land of Canaan, a land flowing with milk and honey, and empowered them to defeat all the land's inhabitants to take possession (Exod. 3:8)!  Haven't they seen?  Haven't they seen?  Why have they forgotten (Deut. 25:17-19)?  If they didn't turn their back on God before now, then maybe Goliath wouldn't be looking so impressive now!


"Surely to defy Israel is he come up:" - Now here's a clue that Israel is arrogant in its own stupidity.  At this time Israel as a nation has no concept of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, being their God, protector, and provider.  They have forgotten their God and his covenant.  If they remembered him, then the concept would have crossed their minds that Goliath was coming up to defy their God, to defy the God Almighty, rather than to defy them.  When the devil and his little demon spirits attack you, they attack the Father, and his son Christ Jesus within you!  You're the new permanent domain and dwelling place of God!  His Spirit is in you, if you received a new birth above.  Now let's think for a minute.  The devil and demon spirits must be stupid to attack the one true God, right?


"the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter," - no one hesitated to step forward on account of the money wasn't good enough, or that Saul's daughter was hard to look at.  It was because Israel had forgotten all about God Almighty, and in their minds they couldn't get past the physical flesh and blood five senses sight and sound of Goliath, and so through their own five senses became paralyzed with fear.  But wait a minute:


2 Tim. 1:7 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) the (ho) God (theos) absolutely did not give (ou edōken) to us (hēmin) [a] Spirit (pneuma) of cowardice (deilias), BUT (alla), [a] work of inherent power (dunameōs), and (kai) of love (agapēs), and (kai) of thinking whole thoughts (sōphronismou)!


If a new disciple of Christ Jesus can build belief in his or her heart of only this one verse, that disciple would become a little "David" on the inside.  God's gift of his paternal Spirit dwelling within a believer is God's work of inherent power within us.  It's what makes us a new kind of a creature, a new kind of creation, a kind of human beings which may never have existed upon earth before this present age, until the day of Pentecost (Acts 2).


"make his father's house free in Israel." - In addition to the other two rewards, the monetary wealth, and Saul's daughter, Saul would release from slavery the family of any soldier who killed Goliath.