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Chapter 20


Update:  2024.02.28


Luke 20:1 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) it caused itself to come to pass (egeneto) in (en) one (mia) of the (tōn) days (hēmerōn) of him (autou) teaching (didaskontos) the (ton) people (laon) in (en) the (tō) sacred place (hierō), and (kai) causing himself to evangelize (euangelizomenou), the (hoi) chief sacrificial priests (archiereis) and (kai) the (hoi) writers (grammateis) stood over (epestēsan) together with (sun) the (tois) elders (presbuterois).


(For an outline of Jesus Christ’s accomplishments in his earthly agency to his heavenly Father, see the note under Mat. 3:17.)


Luke 20:2 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they enunciated (eipan), saying (lengontes) to him (auton), “Enunciate (eipon) to us (hēmin), in (en) what (poia) authority (exousia) do you do (poieis) these things (tauta)?


Or (ē), who (tis) is (estin) the one (ho) having given (dous) to you (soi) the (tēn) authority (exousian) of this (tautēn)?"


Luke 20:3 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) having been caused to make [a] decision (apokritheis), he enunciated (eipen) to (pros) them (autous), “I also (kagō) shall inquire (erōtēsō) [a] word (logon) of you (humas), and (kai) you enunciate (eipate) [[a] word, RE] to me (moi):


Luke 20:4 (LIT/UBS4) The (to) baptism (baptisma) of John (Iōannou), was (hēn) [it, AE] out (ex) of heaven (ouranou) or (ē) out (ex) of mortals (anthrōpōn)?”


Luke 20:5 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (hoi) [chief sacrificial priests, writers and elders, v1, RE] caused themselves to account (sunelogisanto) to (pros) themselves (heautous), saying (legontes) that (hoti), “If perhaps (ean) we may enunciate (eipōmen), ‘Out (ex) of heaven (ouranou)’, he shall state (erei), ‘Through (dia) what (ti) [reason, AE] did you absolutely not believe (ouk episteusate) him (autō)!?’


Luke 20:6 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) if perhaps (ean) we may enunciate (eipōmen), ‘Out (ex) of mortals (anthrōpōn)’, all (hapas) the (ho) people (laos) shall stone us down (katalithasei hēmas), because (gar) [of all the people, RE] having been persuaded (pepeismenos) John (Iōannēn) is (estin) to be (einai) [a] prophet (prophētēn)!”


Luke 20:7 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they were caused to make [a] decision (apekrithēsan) not (mē) to have seen (eidenai) from where (pothen) [was John's baptism, v4, RE].


Luke 20:8 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) enunciated (eipen) to them (autois), “But absolutely neither do I say (oude egō legō) to you (humin) in (en) what (poia) authority (exousia) I do (poiō) these things (tauta)!”


Luke 20:9 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) he caused himself to start (ērxato) to speak (legein) the (tēn) parable (parabolēn) of this (tautēn) to (pros) the (ton) people (laon):


“[A] certain (tis) mortal (anthrōpos) planted (ephuteusen) [a] vineyard (ampelōna) and (kai) caused himself to give it out (exedeto auton) to land workers (geōrgois).


And (kai) he went away (apedēmēsen) [a] suitable number (hikanous) of times (chronous).


Luke 20:10 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) for [a] time (kairō) he sent (apesteilen) [a] slave (doulon) to (pros) the (tous) land workers (geōrgous), in order that (hina) they shall give (dōsousin) to him (autō) from (apo) the (tou) produce (karpou) of the (tou) vineyard (ampelōnos).


But (de) the (hoi) land workers (geōrgoi) sent [[the] slave, RE] out (exapesteilan) empty (kenon), they having skinned1194 (deirantes) him (auton).


Luke 20:11 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he caused himself to add (prosetheto) another (heteron) slave (doulon).


But (de) the (hoi) [land workers, v10, RE] having skinned1194 (deirantes) and (kai) having dishonored (atimasantes) that one also (kakeinon), they sent [that slave, RE] out (exapesteilan) empty (kenon).


Luke 20:12 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he caused himself to add (prosetheto) [a] third (triton) [slave, v11, RE] to send (pempsai).


But (de) the (hoi) [land workers, v10, RE] having traumatized (traumatisantes) this one (touton) also (kai), they threw [this slave, RE] out (exebalon).


2Luke 0:13 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) lord (kurios) of the (tou) vineyard (ampelōnos) enunciated (eipen), 'What (ti) may I do (poiēsō)?


I shall send (pempsō) the (ton) son (huion) of me (mou), the (ton) beloved one (agapēton).


Chances are even (isōs) they shall be made respectful (entrapēsontai) of this one (touton).'


Luke 20:14 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) having seen (idontes) him (auton), the (hoi) land workers (geōrgoi) were being caused to reason through (dielogizonto) toward (pros) one another (allēlous), saying (legontes), ‘This one (houtos) is (estin) the (ho) heir (klēronomos)!


We may kill (apokteinōmen) him (auton), in order that (hina) the (hē) inheritance (klēronomia) might cause itself to become (genētai) ours (hēmōn)!’


Luke 20:15 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) having thrown him out (ekbalontes auton) outside (exō) of the (tou) vineyard (ampelōnos), they killed (apekteinan) [the heir, v14, RE].


Therefore (oun), the (ho) lord (kurios) of the (tou) vineyard (ampelōnos), what (ti) shall he do (poiēsei) to them (autois)?


Luke 20:16 (LIT/UBS4) He shall cause himself to come (eleusetai) and (kai) he shall destroy (apolesei) the (tous) land workers (geōrgous) of these (toutous), and (kai) he shall give (dōsei) the (ton) vineyard (ampelōna) to others (allois).”


But (de) [the people, v9, RE] having heard (akousantes) [the parable, v9, RE], they enunciated (eipan), “May it not cause itself to come to pass (mē genoito)!”


Luke 20:17 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) [Jesus, v8, RE] having looked in1689 (emblepsas) to them (autois), he enunciated (eipen), “Therefore (oun), what (ti) is (estin) the (to) [Word, AE] having been written (gegrammenon), ‘[A] stone (lithon) of which (hon) the ones (hoi) building [a] domed-roof house3618 (oikodomountes) disapproved (apedokimasan), this (houtos) [stone, RE] was caused to become (egenēthē) into (eis) [a] head (kephalēn) of [an] angle1137 (gōnias)!?


(For a stone becoming a head of an angle, see Psalm 118:22-23; Isa. 28:16-17; Mat. 21:42; Mark 12:10-11; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:1-11; Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:4-7)


(For an outline of Jesus Christ’s accomplishments in his earthly agency to his heavenly Father, see the note under Mat. 3:17.)


Luke 20:18 (LIT/UBS4) The one (ho), everyone (pas), having fallen (pesōn) upon (ep’) the (ton) stone (lithon) of that (ekeinon), he shall be altogether broken (sunthlasthēsetai).


But (d’) upon (eph’) which one (hon) perhaps (an) it may fall (pesē), it shall crush (likmēsei) him (auton).”


Luke 20:19 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (hoi) writers (grammateis) and (kai) the (hoi) chief sacrificial priests (archiereis) sought (ezētēsan) to throw (epibalein) the (tas) hands (cheiras) [of them, AE] upon (ep’) him (auton), in (en) the (tē) same (autē) hour (hōra), and (kai) they were caused to be in fear (ephobēthēsan) of the (ton) people (laon).


Because (gar) they knew (egnōsan) that (hoti) he enunciated (eipen) the (tēn) parable (parabolēn) of this (tautēn) toward (pros) them (autous).


Luke 20:20 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they having watched (paratētērēsantes), they sent (apesteilan) ones down among (enkathetous) [the people, v19, RE], causing themselves to act (hupokrinomenous) to be (einai) righteous ones (dikaious) themselves (heautous);


in order that (hina) they might cause themselves to take hold over (epilabōntai) [him, over the sake of the, AE] Word (logou) of him (autou), so that (hōste) to pass him aside (paradounai auton) to the (tē) chief one746 (archē), and (kai) to the (tē) authority (exousia) of the (tou) leader (hēgemonos).


Luke 20:21 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they inquired over (epērōtēsan) [the sake, AE] of him (auton), saying (legontes), “Teacher (didaskale), we have seen (oidamen) that (hoti) you speak (legeis) and (kai) you teach (didaskeis) straightly (orthōs), and (kai) you absolutely do not receive (ou lambaneis) [the] face (prosōpon) [appearance of mortals, vMat. 22:16; Mark 12:14; 2 Cor. 10:7; Gal. 2:6; Jude 1:16; RE].


BUT (all’), over (ep’) [the sake, AE] of Truth (alētheias), you teach (didaskeis) the (tēn) way (hodon) of the (tou) God (theou)!


Luke 20:22 (LIT/UBS4) Is it being outside1832 (exestin) [the law, AE] for us (hēmas) to give (dounai) [a] property tax5411 (phoron) to Caesar (Kaisari), or (ē) absolutely not (ou)!?"


Luke 20:23 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) he having entirely perceived (katanoēsas) the (tēn) shrewdness (panourgian) of them (autōn), he enunciated (eipen) to them (autous),


Luke 20:24 (LIT/UBS4) “Show (deixate) to me (moi) [a] denarius (dēnarion).


Of whom (tinos) does it have (echei) [an] icon (eikona) and (kai) [an] epigraph (epigraphēn)?”


But (de) the (hoi) [writers and the chief sacrificial priests, v19, RE] enunciated (eipan), “Of Caesar (Kaisaros)!”


Luke 20:25 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) [Jesus, v8, RE] enunciated (eipen) to (pros) them (autous), “Nevertheless now (toinun) give away (apodate) the things (ta) of Caesar (Kaisaros) to Caesar (Kaisari), and (kai) the things (ta) of the (tou) God (theou) to God (theō)!”


Luke 20:26 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they were absolutely not strong enough (ouk ischusan) to cause themselves to take hold over (epilabesthai) him (autou) [over the sake of the, AE] Word (rhēmatos) [of him, AE], in sight (enantion) of the (tou) people (laou)!


And (kai) they having been amazed (thaumasantes) over (epi) the (tē) decision (apokrisei) of him (autou), they kept hushed (esigēsan).


Luke 20:27 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) some (tines) of the (tōn) Sadducees (Saddoukaiōn) having come to (proselthontes) [him, v26, RE], the ones (hoi) being opposed (anti) of [a] standing up (anastasin) [out of dead ones, AE], [of it, AE] not (mē) to be (einai), they inquired (epērōtēsan) of him (auton),


Luke 20:28 (LIT/UBS4) saying (legontes), “Teacher (didaskale), Moses (Mōusēs) wrote (egrapsen) to us (hēmin), ‘If perhaps (ean) [a] brother (adelphos) of someone (tinos) may die way (apothanē), having (echōn) [a] female (gunaika), and (kai) this one (houtos) might be (ē) [a] childless one (ateknos), that (hina) the (ho) brother (adelphos) of him (autou) should take (labē) the (tēn) female (gunaika), and (kai) he should stand up (exanastēsē) [a] seed/sperm (sperma) to the (tō) brother (adelphō) of him (autou).’


Luke 20:29 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), there were being (ēsan) seven (hepta) brothers (adelphoi).


And (kai) the (ho) first (prōtos) having taken (labōn) [a] female (gunaika), he died away (apethanen) childless (ateknos).


Luke 20:30 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) second (deuteros),


Luke 20:31 (LIT/UBS4) and (kai) the (ho) third (tritos), took (elaben) her (autēn).


But (de) in the same manner (hōsautōs) the (hoi) seven (hepta) also (kai) absolutely did not leave (ou katelipon) ones born (tekna), and (kai) they died away (apethanon).


Luke 20:32 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) later (husteron) the (hē) female (gunē) died away (apethanen).


Luke 20:33 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), the (hē) female (gunē), in (en) the (tē) standing up (anastasei), for which (tinos) of them (autōn) is she caused to become (ginetai) [the] female (gunē)?


Because (gar) the (hoi) seven (hepta) had (eschon) her (autē) for [a] female (gunaika).”


Luke 20:34 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) enunciated (eipen) to them (autois), “The (hoi) sons (huioi) of the (tou) age (aiōnos) of this (toutou) marry (gamousin), and (kai) are given in marriage (gamiskontai).


Luke 20:35 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the ones (hoi) of the (tou) age (aiōnos) of that (ekeinou) having been valued down equally (kataxiōthentes) to attain (tuchein) the (tēs) standing up (anastaseōs), the (tēs) [standing up, RE] out (ek) of dead ones (nekrōn), they absolutely do not marry (oute gamousin), and they absolutely are not given in marriage (oute gamizontai)!


Luke 20:36 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) they are but absolutely no longer yet inherently powered (oude eti dunatai) to die away (apothanein)!


Because (gar) they are (eisin) equal messengers (isangeloi), and (kai) they are (eisin) sons (huioi) of the (tēs) God (theou), they being (ontes) sons (huioi) of the (tēs) standing up (anastaseōs).


Luke 20:37 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) that (hoti) the (hoi) dead ones (nekroi) are awakened (egeirontai), Moses (Mōusēs) also (kai) made evident (emēnusen) over (epi) the (tēs) brier bush (batou), as (hōs) he calls (legei) [the] Lord (kurion) the (ton) God (theon, elohim) of Abraham (Abraam), and (kai) [the] God (theon, elohim) of Isaac (Isaak), and (kai) [the] God (theon, elohim) of Jacob (Iakōb)!


Luke 20:38 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) he is (estin) absolutely not (ouk) God (theos) of dead ones (nekrōn), BUT (alla), of ones living (zōntōn);


because (gar) all (pantes) are living (zōsin) for him (autō)!”


(See Ex. 3:6; Mat. 22:29-32; Mark 12:24-27; Luke 20:34-38).


(The death of Abraham is recorded in Gen. 25:7-10, at 175 years of age, in about 1821 B.C.;


the death of Isaac is recorded in Gen. 35:28-29, at 180 years of age, in about 1716 B.C.;


the death of Jacob is recorded in Gen. 49:33, at 147 years of age, in about 1689 B.C..


Moses, flees to Midian in about 1571 B.C.


Moses leads the exodus of Egypt in about 1491 B.C. This means Moses must have seen the burning bush sometime in the 40 years between when he came to Midian and when he led the exodus out of Egypt. At the time Moses led the exodus out of Egypt Jacob had died 198 years earlier.  But yet at the time when Moses speaks with God’s messenger (Exod. 3:2; Acts 7:30-38) at the burning bush (Exod. 3:1-4:17), at that time God says that he is the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.  If the God is a god of the living, and absolutely not of the dead, as Jesus states this emphatically (Mat. 22:29-32; Mark 12:24-27; Luke 20:34-38), then Abraham, Isaac and Jacob must be alive at the time he spoke through his messenger to Moses at the burning bush, in order to speak without lying! This begs the question, exactly when does occur the standing up of the dead righteous ones?)


Luke 20:39 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) some (tines) of the (tōn) writers (grammateōn) having been caused to make [a] decision (apokrithentes), they enunciated (eipan), “Teacher (didaskalle), you enunciated (eipas) beautifully (kalōs)”,


Luke 20:40 (LIT/UBS4) because (gar) they were absolutely no longer yet being audacious enough (ouketi etolmōn) to inquire (eperōtan) of him (auton) of absolutely not one (ouden) [inquiry, RE]!


Luke 20:41 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) [the Jesus, v34, RE] enunciated (eipen) to them (autous), “How (pōs) can they say (legousin) the (ton) Christ (Christon) to be (einai) [a] son (huion) of David (Dauid)?


Luke 20:42 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) David (Dauid) himself (autos) says (legei) in (en) [a] book (biblō) of psalms (psalmōn), ‘[The] Lord (kurios, YHWH) enunciated (eipen) to the (tō) lord (kuriō, ādôn) of me (mou), ‘Cause yourself to sit down (kathou) out (ek) right (dexiōn) of me (mou)


Luke 20:43 (LIT/UBS4) until (heōs) perhaps (an) I may put (thō) the (tous) hated ones (echthrous) of you (sou) for [a] footstool (hupopodion) of the (tōn) feet (podōn) of you (sou).'


(For Christ Jesus' footstool, see Psalm 110:1; Mat. 22:44; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:43; Acts 2:35; *Rom. 16:20; 1 Cor. 15:25-28; Eph. 1:22; Heb. 1:13, 2:8, 10:13)


Luke 20:44 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), David (Dauid) calls (kalei) him (auton) 'Lord (kurion, ādôn)', and (kai) how (pōs) is he (estin) [a] son (huios) of him (autou)!?”


Luke 20:45 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) [with, AE] all (pantos) of the (tou) people (laou) hearing (akouontos), [the Jesus, v34, RE] enunciated (eipen) to the (tois) disciples (mathētais) of him (autou),


Luke 20:46 (LIT/UBS4) “From (apo) the (tōn) writers (grammateōn) pay attention (prosechete), the ones (tōn) desiring (thelontōn) to walk around (peripatein) in (en) stoles (stolais), and (kai) loving (philountōn) greetings (aspasmous) in (en) the (tais) marketplaces (agorais), and (kai) first seats4411 (prōtokathedrias) in (en) the (tais) synagogues (sunagōgais), and (kai) first recliners4411 (prōtoklisias) in (en) the (tois) dinners (deipnois);


Luke 20:47 (LIT/UBS4) ones who (hoi) devour (katesthiousin) the (tas) houses (oikias) of the (tōn) bereaved ones (chērōn);


and (kai) for outward showbiz (prophasei) they cause themselves to be well-thankful to4336 (proseuchontai) [God, AE] from afar (makra)!


These ones (houtoi) shall cause themselves to receive (lēmpsontai) [an] abundant (perissoteron) judicial decision (krima).”