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The Literal Idiomatic Translation Glossary



By Hal Dekker


Last update to the LITG:  2023.06.20


Last update to this page:  2023.12.01


References for Strong's #s 1 - 1799



Please note:  I neither imply nor give anyone permission to use either a part or the whole of any of my intellectual work presented at this web site, or any other web site, without expressly written and signed permission from the author and/or translator, Hal Dekker.


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The Purpose of the LIT Glossary (LITG) 


In the LIT, contrary to virtually all other "translations", I allow all of the ancient cultural idioms and colloquialisms to flow out of the Greek directly into English, since there are no paraphrases forged into the LIT.  Middle Eastern idioms and colloquialisms are colorful grammatical mechanisms the God chose to use in his Word, to explain the spiritual realities and truths he designed to bring mortalkind to wholeness/salvation.  In the LITG I quote the ancient biblical writers use of these colorful sayings, and suggest possible explanations of their meanings. 


The broad diversity of Middle Eastern customs and cultural practices mentioned by biblical writers is one of the reasons why I determined there was a need for me to produce the LITG.  I needed a handy reference tool I could use to record my previous research and understanding of their meanings, so that when I encounter them again, going forward in my studies, I can simply review what I've already learned and understand about them.


 From my own experience I believe that when hundreds of cultural idioms and colloquialisms are allowed to flow through into an English translation, the cumulative result is to broaden the scope of a reader's understanding of the spiritual concepts inherent in those idioms and colloquialisms, thusly making the meanings in the holy scriptures not only visible, but clearer to readers, using no paraphrases and creative "synonyms" whatsoever. 


Clarity of the meanings of the idioms allows more depth of understanding of God's Word.  When one can "see' more in God's Word, then one can learn more, then one can understand more, then one can believe more, which belief in our hearts is the precious jewel of great price for which we are digging throughout all of God's Word.  In the LIT Glossary you'll see explanations of many idiomatic terms, and be exposed to many ancient Middle Eastern cultural colloquialisms, from which many have been adopted into English over the centuries. 


The bandwidth of colorful communication inherent in the original Hebrew and Greek languages traditionally has been severely constricted in translation through the over abundant use of almost equivalent "synonyms", which I call "creative" synonyms, which are in essence, paraphrases.  Most all Bible translators and translation committees have already decided for us what we would much rather see in Bible translations, which they conclude are creative "synonyms" and paraphrases, according to their own private interpretations, instead of what the biblical writers actually wrote!  That's absolutely not what I would rather see in a Bible translation, if it's going to actually be a translation and not a work of fiction.


But isn't the whole purpose of the translation process to reveal into another language what God has actually said, and not to cut out portions and paste in our own theological opinions through egomaniacal paraphrasing?


Problems And Challenges To An English Translator


Most all of the Koiné or common language Greek words, idioms and colloquialisms, do have English common language equivalents, even though some may not be exactly word-for-word in English.   Why do you suppose the straight forward, unequivocal, direct to the point communication styles of the biblical writers, of both OT and NT writers, are so offensive to sin nature-based mortals like us while reading God's Word?  Could it be because those communication styles leave little wiggle room in their statements of God's Truth, from which we can imagine reasons for which to excuse ourselves from our own accountability to them? 


Therefore the goal of this glossary is by no means to simply regurgitate what dozens of concordances and commentaries state in their respectable English-style definitions and explanations, but to expose and present the common-level street talk and their associated meanings recorded by Jesus' apostles, which were popular among the common-level "sinners" of their time, in their culture, instead of removing them in "translation" with paraphrases, from appearing in Bibles.  As goes the saying you've heard before, the LIT presents the truth, and the whole truth, using no creative "synonyming" and paraphrasing.


Overcoming Traditional Translation Hurdles


This glossary is not intended to duplicate anything you can already read in Moulton's Analytical Greek Lexicon Revised, or Vine's, or anyone else's lexicon, but to provide unique references with definitions and explanations of words and cultural idioms not easily explained, or not traditionally referenced in most popular reference materials.  Additionally, this glossary is intended to expose the reader to those politically or "theologically" incorrect, guttural, slang, and other supposedly inappropriate words and idioms that translation committees have traditionally tended to needlessly paraphrase and/or obliterate out of Bible translations. 


Many scriptural words and their associated meanings and ideas have been skewed to some extent over the centuries, through their repeatedly incorrect oral presentations, i.e., preaching and teaching.  Very often scriptural words and idioms have narrower or broader meanings than they are allowed in modern, westernized Christianity.  I use the LITG to these findings also.


Over the last two thousand years many words and idioms used by the NT biblical writers have been erroneously redefined outside of their biblical contexts by egomaniacal, self-omniscient, self-grandiloquent academic types, to support their own "theological" imaginations, which MUST be heard.  In fact, they are so egomaniacal, so self-omniscient and so self-grandiloquent that writing their ideas in separate books, like commentaries and lexicons, isn't good enough for them.  They demand their "theological" ideas be forged directly into Bible translations themselves, obliterating parts of biblical texts which state things contrary to their own personal beliefs, because they already know better than the God what God should've told Jesus' apostles to write! 


This very low level of quality of Bible translation has been the normal practice, ever since "Christians" began producing Bible "translations" about seventeen hundred years ago!  And that is a matter of fact, which I show in every one of my own personal studies, and in my LIT Bible translation here at this website.  The goal of the true followers of Jesus Christ, Jesus' disciples and apostles, is to both preserve, verbatim, and make known God's Word, Just as God gave his revelation many years ago.


The most important quality control mechanism over the preservation of God's Word, in order to produce truth in translation, which has now become more or less fragmented in most all Bible "translations", is the preservation of biblical words' inflected forms.  At the grammatical level of any word's inflected form, its elements of inflection are always present and are obvious for translators to see; such as type, mood, tense, voice, case, gender, person and number for Greek verbs.  But very commonly, throughout most all Bible translations going as far back as possible, biblical word's points of inflection are ignored, from Mat. 1:1 to Rev. 22:21, and most often biblical wordage, biblical statements themselves, are obliterated out of Bible "translations."  But, presenting each biblical word's definition in regard to its specific inflected form, in its context, is exactly how the highest quality of truth in translation is achieved.  Sadly, this has not been the top priority of most all Bible translations. 


The purpose of any Bible translation ever made can be determined, through noticing the meanings of the creative "synonyms" and paraphrases forged into it, and then through noticing the meanings of the words and their inflected forms having been obliterated out of that Bible "translation" to accommodate those egomaniacal paraphrases.  Comparing what those forged-in paraphrases in bibles say, to what the original biblical wordage said which was replaced/obliterated by those paraphrases, exposes the "theological" reasons why Bibles have always been altered from what the biblical writers actually wrote!  Bible translations are altered to trick people into sinning in those subject matter areas where the alterations have been paraphrased-in.  Thusly, virtually all Bible translations are paraphrased to cause readers to believe that Jesus Christ, God's first born son, is/was God himself; thusly causing Bible readers to break God's first commandment. 


What's more about truth in translation, is that when comparing the meanings of forged-in paraphrases with the actual biblical wordage they were used to replace, which is long hard tedious work, you'll begin to notice that the surreptitiously supposed reason or goal for using paraphrases, to make meanings in one culture understandable to  people of another culture, is usually not achieved.  What is most often achieved is the obliteration of the wordage and meanings of the biblical writers, and thereby entire contextual meanings become dumbed down and obfuscated.  The dumbing down and obfuscation of biblical passages causes people to question what those dumbed down obfuscated meanings in those passages could actually be.  This is the choreographed opening opportunity the devil orchestrated and is counting upon to send in his people to give you those answers, of what he wants you to believe about "Christianity".  Virtually all obfuscations are done to point readers in the direction of believing that Jesus Christ is God himself, which belief causes people to unknowingly break God's first commandment.


In any given phrase, clause or sentence in the biblical texts, simply quality of translation, not to mention high quality, requires meticulous attention be given to all of the inflected forms of all of the words in them, which inflected forms were deliberately used by the biblical writers, chosen by holy Spirit working within them, to all work together in concert to convey meaning.  Paying particular attention to the concert of inflections between words, given that root word meanings are preserved in translation, actually controls whether a translation of any biblical passage is either Truth or error.  This is why quality control of Bible translation begins at the level of the inflected forms of the biblical words themselves. 


Certainly this is a foundational observation which can be made by anyone actually examining inflected forms of biblical words in any phrase, clause or sentence in the biblical texts, for themselves.  Hey you Greek students!  What's more, the concert between inflected forms of words, phrases, clauses and sentences extends out into surrounding contexts as well!  I can't even imagine how the Friberg's could have produced their morphology without first noticing the very obvious concert between words' inflected forms at least within immediate contexts in the biblical texts. 


I give a shout out to Greek students because it's obvious that current Bible translators may have been Greek students at some time, but apparently at that time they weren't instructed adequately about Greek words' inflected forms, based upon anyone's observation from comparing the exact wordage in biblical texts (I use the UBS4) to the "translated" wordage in English Bible translations. 


In modern oral "Christianity" many Truths recorded in the biblical texts of God's Word no longer have any existence, they having been paraphrased, obfuscated and thereby obliterated away.  But alternately, many supposed "truths" in Christianity, which I would call lies, can't be found in the ancient biblical texts, either Hebrew or Greek texts.  Presently, the glorious level of literary genius invested into Bible translations is focused upon how admirable are the quality and quantity of erroneous paraphrases and "synonyms" forged/fudged into Bible translations; about how well they function in misleading Bible readers into the 4th century invented triune godhead model of God concept and beliefs!  That's their level of the bar of quality in translation! 


*** Look and compare for yourselves, to see how often the inflected forms of verbs are almost entirely ignored in Bible translations, especially middle/reflexive voice verbs!  LOOK!





For the sake of order, and to be able to find my own comments upon various biblical words and subject matters I've read and studied in the biblical texts, I superscripted appropriate Strong's numbers to various words in the LIT, and to the key words of various biblical subject matters in the LIT.  I've listed those Strong's numbers here in this glossary in numerical ascending order, under which numbers I've supplied my comments.



26 - love (agapē, noun) - This particular root spelling which is always translated as love in the LIT, is used by the biblical writers most often to refer to the kind of love the God demonstrates in his love for his children, which is a much more complete kind of love than the common kind of love, philia, Strong's # 5373, mortals usually demonstrate toward one another.  Agapē kind of love is the kind of love which can be manifested and demonstrated only by those mortals who have received a new birth above in God's gift of his paternal holy Spirit.



32 - messenger or messengers (angelos, noun) - In the KJV angelos is translated as angel 179 times, and as messenger only 7 times.  But simply transliterating Greek angelos into angel in translation ignores all of the biblical contexts in which angelos is used.  On account of the previous erroneous translation of Greek angelos in countless Bible translations, from as far back in time as Bible translations have been manufactured, translators have stigmatized the transliteration of angel as referring only to God's heavenly host.  But God has his own messengers out of both his heavenly host and his earthly creation, mortalkind.  According to the biblical texts, not all of God's angels are messengers,  and not all of God's messengers are angels.  This is why angelos and all of its inflected forms are translated as messenger or messengers in the LIT when it is obvious that they have been sent to deliver a message.


I believe we must allow a word's contextual usages, whenever possible, to help define a biblical writer's intended explicit meaning of a word.  Simply looking in a concordance to see how various translators translated a word tells us only how they chose to translate a word into English, driven most always by the triune godhead theological persuasion. 


Biblical analytical or critical Greek lexicons tell us what are the inherent meanings of words popularly used in their cultural settings during the time they were popularly used.  ike that one of Baur, Arndt and Gingrich, show us how biblical terms, and other terms closely related to them in meanings, have been used in other non-biblical works as well, supplying scopes of meanings for words used both biblically and secularly.


But allowing God's Word to have the overruling authority of a word's meaning, based upon how a word is used repeatedly in various contexts, allows a translator to actually quote the writer's intended meaning of a word, and there is no need for theological interpretation on the part of a translator.  I believe tradition has mistakenly taught, either directly or indirectly that the meaning of the English word "angel" is simply a kind of heavenly being created by the God the heavenly Father to be used for his purposes.  That's a half-truth on account of that it is way too narrow in meaning compared to the various actual uses of the term angelos in the ancient Greek texts. 


In all 186 usages of angelos in the Textus Receptus it means one who is sent to deliver a message.  As we can see the critical meaning of the word describes a function that is performed.  Angelos is not a title like the words king, lord, prince, captain, lieutenant, master, sir, ambassador, and so on.  Angelos is NOT a title meaning heavenly being.  Angelos is a term which describes a function being performed, describing the action of a verb taking place, like the terms runner, welder, plumber, driver, writer, speaker and so on, which words describe the action of running, welding, plumbing, driving, writing and speaking.  Angelos describes the action of delivering a message, which is why I translate it as messenger in the LIT, in every one of its usages.  


Another reason why I translate angelos as messenger is because the term is applied to mortal, soul-based beings as well, not to simply to heavenly, spirit-based beings.  In Mat. 1:20 angelos is used by the writer Matthew to refer to the heavenly being which, in a vision, came to Joseph, Mariam's husband, to deliver the message from the Lord that he should not be fearful to take Mariam to himself to be his wife, because the child having been generated in her is "out of holy Spirit".  Yes, this is how angelos is used in the majority of its usages, to refer to a heavenly being delivering a message.  BUT, angelos is used to refer to mortal beings delivering messages also, ones who have been sent to deliver messages to other mortals. 


In Mat. 11:10 Jesus Christ, speaking of John the Baptist, quotes the prophecy of Malachi, in Mal. 3:1a:


Mat. 11:10 (LIT/UBS4) This one (houtos) is (estin) [[the] prophet, v9, RE] about (peri) whom (hou) it has been written (gegraptai):

‘Behold (idou), I (egō) send (apostellō) the (ton) messenger (aggelon) of me (mou) before (pro) [the] face (prosōpou) of you (sou), who (hos) shall lay down [a] schematic (kataskeuasei) of the (tēn) way (hodon) of you (sou) in front (emprosthen) of you (sou)!’ 


Jesus refers to John the Baptist as Jesus' own messenger, 'the messenger of me'In other various passages in the new testament writings they say that John the Baptist was sent to introduce the prophesied and promised messiah to the children of Israel.  And, that he would bring a new covenant which the God the heavenly Father wished to make with all mortalkind (Jer. 31:31-34; Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:17-21). 


But when we look at Mal. 3:1 we see not only the prophesy of the coming John the Baptist, referred to simply as a messenger, but we see another messenger mentioned as well in his prophecy,


Mal. 3:1a (LIT) Behold, I am sending a messenger of me; and he shall clear the way [of you] before [you].  


Mal. 3:1b (LIT) And suddenly, the Lord for whom you search, shall come to his temple, [who is] the messenger of the covenant, whom you are desiring.  Behold, he shall come, says Yehovah of hosts!


I can see how Mal. 3:1a speaks of John the Baptist, through corresponding the new covenant revelation, which has subsequently been revealed to us, back to Malachi's prophecy in 3:1a.   But what Jesus said in Mat. 11:10 is silent about what Malachi meant in 3:1b.   But I believe there is another new covenant revelation which corresponds back to Mal. 3:1b, which is given to us in Rev. 19:10 and 22:6-16.


Rev. 19:10 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) I fell4098 (epesa) in front (emprosthen) of the (tōn) feet (podōn) of him (autou) to bow to4352 (proskunēsai) him (autō).  


And (kai) [the voice out of the throne, v5, ER] says (legei) to me (moi), “Do not (mē) gaze (hora) [at me, AE]!  


I am (eimi) [a] slave together with (sundoulos) you (sou), and (kai) of the (tōn) brothers (adelphōn) of you (sou), of the (tōn) [brothers] holding (echontōn) the (tēn) witness (marturian) of Jesus (Iēsou).


Because (gar) the (hē) witness (marturia) of Jesus (Iēsou) is (estin) the (to) Spirit (pneuma) of the (tēs) prophecy (prophēteias).  


Bow to4352 (proskunēson) the (tō) God (theō)!”


Who is speaking in this verse, the one who refused to allow the apostle John to bow to him, but said to him, "Do not gaze [at me]!  Bow to the God!"?  Whoever is speaking to John considers itself to be a slave of the God together with apostle John, and of the brothers of John, the brothers who are holding the witness of Jesus.  Apostle Paul, speaking of Jesus Christ, says in his letter to the believers in Philippi:


Phil. 2:7 (LIT/UBS4) BUT (alla), he emptied (ekenōsen) himself (heauton), he having taken (lobōn) [a] form (morphēn) of [a] slave (doulou), he having caused himself to become (genomenos) in (en) [a] likeness (homoiōmati) of mortals (anthrōpōn), and (kai) one having been found (heuretheis) [in, RE] [a] scheme (schēmati) as (hōs) [a] mortal (anthrōpos)!


Paul says Jesus Christ voluntarily took the form of a slave to his Father the God; a slave in the likeness of mortals.


Brothers in Rev. 19:10 must not mean brothers in the sense of fellow children of Israel, or brothers after the flesh.  Brothers here must mean as Jesus described in Mat. 12:49-50:


Mat. 12:49 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) having stretched out (ekteinas) the (tēn) hand (cheira) of him (autou) over (epi) the (tous) disciples (mathētas) of him (autou), he enunciated (eipen), “Behold (idou),  the (hē) mother (mētēr) of me (mou) and (kai) the (hoi) brothers (adelphoi) of me (mou)!


Mat. 12:50 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) perhaps (an) anyone who (hostis) may do (poiēsē) the (to) desire (thelēma) of the (tou) Father (patros) of me (mou), the one (tou) in (en) [the] heavens (ouranois), he (autos) is (estin) [a] brother (adelphos) of me (mou), and (kai) [a] sister (adelphē), and (kai) [a] mother (mētēr).”


In Rev. 22:8-9 apostle John attempts to bow to this messenger again, and again receives the same treatment and explanation.


Rev. 22:8 (LIT/UBS4) And I (kagō), John (Iōannēs), [am] the one (ho) hearing (akouōn) and (kai) seeing (blepōn) these things (tauta).  


And (kai) when (hote) I heard (ēkousa) and (kai) I looked (eblepsa), I fell4098 (epesa) to bow to4352 (proskunēsai) [the messenger, RE}, in front (emprosthen) of the (tōn) feet (podōn) of the (tou) messenger (angelou), of the (tou) [messenger, RE] thoroughly showing (deiknuontos) to me (moi) these things (tauta).


Rev. 22:9 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he says (legei) to me (soi), “Do not (mē) gaze (hora) [at me]!  


I am (eimi) [a] slave together with (sundoulos) you (sou), and (kai) of the (tōn) brothers (adelphōn) of you (sou), of the (tōn) prophets (prophētōn), and (kai) of the ones (tōn) watchfully keeping (tērountōn) the (tous) Words (logous) of the (tou) little scroll (bibliou) of this (toutou).  


Bow to4352 (proskunēson) the (tō) God (theō)!”


This messenger speaking to apostle John says again that he is a brother of the ones watching the words of the little scroll, i.e., of the ones doing the desire of the Father, as Jesus said in Mat. 12:50.   Could this messenger be Christ Jesus himself, the messenger apostle John speaks of in Rev. 22:8, the messenger Malachi speaks of in 3:1b?


What does the opening verse, Rev. 1:1, of the scroll of Revelation of Jesus Christ say about who is giving apostle John this revelation?


Rev. 1:1 (LIT/UBS4) [A] revelation (apokalupsis) of Jesus (Iēsou) Christ (Christou) which (hēn) the (ho) God (theos) gave (edōken) to him (autō), to thoroughly show (deixai) to the (tois) slaves (doulois) of him (autou) things which (ha) [are] necessary (die) to cause themselves to come to pass (genesthai) in (en) acceleration (tachei)


And (kai) [[the] revelation, RE] was signified (esēmanen), he having sent (aposteilas) [[the] revelation, RE] through (dia) the (tou) messenger (angelou) of him (autou), to the (tō) slave (doulō) of him (autou), John (Iōannē);


[A] revelation of Jesus Christ - Jesus Christ is making known this revelation, and he is making it known to apostle John.


which the God gave to him - The God gave this revelation to his son Jesus Christ.


to point out to the slaves of him - Slaves of who?  In the new covenant writings "a slave" is used in reference to both a slave of the God the heavenly Father, and a slave of Jesus Christ, in sonship and in discipleship roles respectively.  Here in John's account of the revelation he received from Jesus Christ, John's references to slaves are always slaves of the God (Rev. 7:3, 10:7, 11:18, 15:3, 19:2, 5, 22:3, 6), with the apparent exception of this first verse which reference to slaves appears to me to refer to those of Jesus Christ.


And he signified [it] - I believe the one who gave the revelation to Jesus Christ is the one who signified it, who is the God the heavenly Father.


having sent [it] through the messenger of him - I believe the one who gave the revelation to Jesus Christ, is the same one who signified it, and is the same one who sent it, who is the God himself, the heavenly Father.  Here the God the heavenly Father refers to his son, Jesus Christ, as his messenger.  This revelation which was given to Jesus Christ from the God was sent through his messenger Jesus Christ to Jesus' slave John.


to the slave of him - John is the slave of him, Jesus, through whom the God gave, signified and sent the revelation.


To me, this scriptural evidence establishes who is the second messenger in Mal. 3:1b.  In Mal. 3:1a Jesus said John the Baptist was the messenger of him (Mat. 11:10).  In Rev. 22:8 John says he bowed toward the feet of the messerger who was speaking to him.  This messenger is defined in John 1:1 as the God the heavenly Father's messenger, Jesus Christ, to whom that revelation was given and signified, and through whom it was sent to Jesus' slave, John.


This evidence in God's Word identifies for me who is the second messenger mentioned in Mal. 3:1b, as being the ascended Christ Jesus himself.  In Mal. 3:1a the first messenger mentioned is John the Baptist, Jesus' messenger; and in Mal. 3:1b the second messenger mentioned is the ascended Christ Jesus himself, the messenger of his Father, the Father who is the highest God.


Mal. 3:1a (LIT) Behold, I am sending [a] messenger of me; and he shall clear the way [of you] before [you].  


Mal. 3:1b (LIT) And suddenly the lord, for whom you search, shall come to his temple, [who is] the messenger of the covenant, whom you are desiring. 


Behold, he shall come, says YHWH of hosts!


And suddenly - When Jesus Christ, the promised messiah, finally arrived, the religious leaders refused to believe it, and they led the children of Israel in their unbelief as well, actually threatening anyone who spoke as though they believed, or said they believed it.


the lord for whom you search - There were many of the children of Israel who were actually looking forward to and expecting the coming of the promised messiah, as Jesus' messenger, John the Baptist, was announcing and preaching.


shall come to his temple - I believe this is the new "temple" made without hands (Mat. 26:61; Mark 14:58; John 2:19-21), the one body of Christ, the new holy place of the God (1 Cor. 3:16-17, 6:15-20; 2 Cor. 6:16; Eph. 2:21; Rev. 7:13-17, 21:22).


the messenger of the covenant - Please see Rom. 11:26-27; Heb. 12:24, 13:20, Heb. chapters 8-13.  This is the new covenant in Jesus Christ's shed blood, which new covenant was prophesied to come (Heb. 10:16-17; Jer. 31:31-34).


I believe this shows that a messenger, Gk. angelos, is not simply a heavenly being, but its usage throughout God's Word refers to both heavenly and mortal beings, and even to Jesus Christ himself, as I've shown here, who is the greatest messenger of all time, being the Word of God, and being the messenger of the new covenant in his shed blood.  I believe this demonstrates also that when we read God's Word, especially in passages where up until now we may have thought that some other angel or messenger was speaking, that it could possibly be God's Word speaking, before it was made flesh, as in Mal. 3:1, or the ascended Word made flesh speaking, Christ Jesus speaking, as he occasionally does throughout John's record of the revelation of Jesus Christ, as I've shown here in Rev. 19:10 and 22:9.  We must NOT jump to conclusions about WHO or WHAT is the messenger about which we are reading, but allow the contexts, immediate, local and remote, as I've shown, to define for us who or what is this messenger.



62 - without diplomas (agrammatoi, adj.) - As to the meaning of this term, two possibilities are generally considered; 1) in Acts 4:13 Peter and John were recognized as not credentialed and/or certified by any hallowed halls of academia, and therefore unauthorized to teach; 2) they were considered as uneducated Galilean fisherman who may not have been able to write.  Personally I believe the first definition represents the state of mind of those false religious leaders.  Jesus was considered as one without a diploma as well (John 7:15), by some Judeans.  However, Jesus Christ and his disciples and apostles were, and still are, God's students and his graduates. 


The current trend among many unhallowed halls of academia is the same today, to passive aggressively hold the things of the God up to their own theological standards of approval, as if God and his son Jesus Christ and his disciples need their approval and certification.   Countless mortal-made egomaniacal halls of academia all believe that their own theological points of view are infallible, and all others are twisted disparaging versions of their own truth, of which they alone have "cornered the market".  This fairly defines all of "Christian" denominationalism, which is supposedly the posterity of the first century church. 


The true individual followers and disciples of Jesus Christ, both then and now, and all through time, absolutely do not consider themselves infallible, but simply as students constantly learning, and always willing to learn more.  But on the other hand, virtually all "Christian" denominations, as guided and led by their own "experts" and "scholars", consider their own denominations as the only true form of Christianity!  The current world-wide versions of what is supposed to be Christianity, and what is being marketed as Christianity, is a splintered falling down house divided against itself.  If you disagree with any of them, unlike the example of Jesus Christ and his disciples, they will steal, kill and destroy you (John 10:9) to protect their own "flocks"!


I've spoken with many "experts" and spiritual "leaders" with diplomas who are proud products of their own mortal-made academic halls, who seem to cling much more to theological theories than the truth of God's Word still preserved in the ancient texts.  I'm amazed time after time over how much knowledge they have, and time they spend, over mortal-made theological and theoretical arguments over supposed scriptural subject matters, and the lack of knowledge they have in actual scriptural subject matter!  Since virtually all Bibles are not quotes of the ancient writers, but paraphrases designed to incorporate mortal-made theological and theoretical ideas and concepts into a media form for transmission into the population, then it's not surprising to me at all that the great pastime of Christianity is to argue endlessly over mortal-made confusion.


While attending a theological/theoretical outlet (church) of a certain religious cartel (denomination), after being invited to attend by the father of that church's pastor/preacher, his son stopped by me after the service to introduce himself to me, and to thank me for coming to hear him speak, since his father told him of my translation work in the texts of the holy scriptures.  I didn't tell him that I didn't come to hear him speak, but I came to hear what he spoke, as an example of the kind of theological/theoretical religious stuff that's being pumped out into the world these days, supposedly about Christianity.  I remember being impressed at how barren was his message. 


Just before I excused myself he asked me about my learning background, supposing I had attended a well-known seminary where I learned to read Greek and translate the ancient texts.  He asked me specifically who were my favorite instructors and mentors who trained me into my spiritual awakening and knowledge of the holy scriptures.  I surprised him greatly when I told him that since about 1976 I have been reading and studying the ancient Greeks texts of the Bible on my own; and so far my hero's who have taught me the most were Christ Jesus, apostle Paul, apostle Peter, apostle John, and the others, and of course my heavenly Father, God, who is teaching me daily through his gift of holy Spirit which he placed within me (Isa. 54:13; Jer. 31:31-34; John 6:45; Heb. 8:8-12, 10:16-17).  Of course I have a wall of all of the most popular seminary text books, texts of ancient manuscripts in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, Hebrew, many Aramaic and Greek language reference resources, concordances, lexicons, books on types, figures of speech, manners and customs, many books by ancient Christian historical writers, biblical atlases, dictionaries and handbooks, various systematic theology works, commentaries, and the works of many writers, layman and scholars, endless English translations, and more. 


Whether or not one was "lettered" meant nothing to all of the scriptural writers and characters mentioned in the ancient texts of God's Word.  What mattered to them was whether God was teaching them!  Saul, one who sat at the feet of one of the renowned religious teachers of supposed spiritual wisdom in ancient history, Gamaliel (Acts 22:3), became so loaded with dogmatic BS that he used it to go out and pursue after, capture, drag into prison, and kill those who believed in God's firstborn son, Jesus Christ!  In 1 Tim. 1:13 Paul speaks of his academic "lettered" training, saying that his ministry from that training was "a blasphemous one".  Paul says he did his previous blasphemous ministry "being an ignorant one", and that he did it out of "unbelief"!  So then, Saul, from sitting at the feet of one of the best Hebrew scholars of his day, Gamaliel, came away "lettered" but ignorant of the truth of God's Word, and without belief!  I would say he didn't get his money's worth.  You can go to all of the seminaries in the world, and you can pay a fortune to all of those 'lettered' teachers so they can keep on going to the grocery store to by more food to feed their bellies, and to pay their rents, boat payments, life and health insurance costs, but that doesn't necessarily coerce God into teaching you his Word (John 6:45)! 


From where I'm sitting and observing, most all of the denominational hate and bigotry is spawned high up in denominational theological hierarchies, and it flows down indirectly through insinuation and innuendo to become a lead for their congregations to follow, which they vengefully and enthusiastically do, effectively tearing out of their Bibles the second half of the ten commandments to love our fellow man as we love ourselves.  It doesn't take discerning of spirits to notice this.  "Unlettered" seems to me to be somewhat of a metaphor for "untrained in the art of hate and bigotry".



63 - piping in the field (agrauleō, verb) - In the text agraulountes is a dual compound of the words agros, meaning a field, and auleō, meaning to pipe, to play a pipe




Keeping sheep in the field over night is more hazardous than bringing them into a fold, a fenced-in pen, overnight.  Keeping sheep in the field prolongs their exposure to predators like coyotes, wild dogs, mountain lions, bears, through a period of darkness which predators use to their advantage.  The shepherd must be vigilant throughout the night as well as during the day to watch the sheep very closely for any threats from predators.  We can see a reference to this in Luke 2:8


The following picture is of a Jewish shepherd boy playing a flute.  It was taken in between 1898 and 1946.  This photograph was taken by the American Colony in Jerusalem, led by Horatio Spafford.


Curt Sachs, in his wonderful work titled The History of Musical Instruments, offers from his studies some history of the ancient Hebrew flute:


"THE UGAB is one of the two first instruments mentioned in the Bible.  Jubal, Lamech's son, so says Genesis 4:21, was 'the father of all such as handle the harp and organ (KJV).'  The Hebrew text has the words kinnor and 'ugâb.  This latter term is extremely rare; it occurs in two other books only, Job 21:12 and 30:31, and the 150th Psalm.  These belong in the most recent sections of the Old Testament, while the first one is among the earliest.


In all these passages the word refers to an instrument contrasting with stringed instruments, but no detailed information is given.  Etymology is not helpful either; at best, 'ugâb may be related to 'agâb, 'was in love.'  If this is true, the interpretation 'flute' is indicated, as among wind instruments flutes were the most closely connected with love charm.


Several translators have interpreted 'ugâb as pan-pipes.  This is certainly incorrect; the first evidence of pan-pipes in the Near East are almost two thousand years later than the epoch described in the Genesis.  A further reason is linguistic.  The Hebrew language had a more suitable word to express the clear sound of so small an instrument - the verb šriqá, 'he whistled.'  The dark color of the word 'ugâb more probably reflects the hollow, oo-like timbre of a long, wide, vertical flute.  This instrument, usually played by shepherds, must be supposed to have existed in Palestine, as it existed in Mesopotamia, Egypt and ancient Arabia.  If originally 'ugâb was a vertical flute, the term might have become a general one later on, just as the term ma·t in Egyptian signified a vertical flute at first, and later all pipes, including oboes and clarinets." (Sachs, Curt. The History of Musical Instruments. New York. W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1940) 



114 - displace (atheteō, verb) - This means to be removed from consideration.   Two close infinitive synonyms are to replace or to remove.  In many contexts it is used in the sense of something being removed and something else being put in its place; to reject the truth of God's Word for mortal's lies (Mark 7:9, 30); to reject the witness of a believer, which is the same as rejecting Jesus Christ, which is the same as rejecting God the heavenly Father (Luke 10:16); God shall displace the false understanding of the so-called "intellectuals" (1 Cor. 1:19); Believers are not to displace (reject, ignore, etc.) the grace of God or else Jesus Christ has died for them in vain (Gal. 2:21)!



142 - was lifted (airō, verb) - To pick up and lift something.  A common verb used 102 times.  It is used occasionally in the text as an idiomatic expression meaning to steal something, as in Acts 8:33, where Isaiah's prophecy is quoted as it is being read by the eunuch, in which it is used twice. The first occurence is in reference to the coming messiah's right to a fair trial being lifted, i.e., stolen from the coming redeemer.  This expression, to lift something, is still commonly used today as an English idiom, but more as a slang usage.  It is used a second time in Acts 8:33 to refer to the knowledge and understanding of the prophecies of the coming redeemer and his fulfillment of them, which would be lifted, i.e., stolen from the people, according to Isaiah's prophecy.  During Jesus Christ's earthly ministry the religious leaders refused to believe that he was the promised redeemer/messiah having actually come.  They refused to look at the prophesies, and then look at him literally fulfilling them (Luke 7:22, 18:31, 24:25).  They not only diligently kept themselves ignorant, they kept all of the people ignorant as well (Luke 11:52).  For this aspect see shall lead through.  Jesus said in John 10:10 that the "thief", the devil, comes only to steal from people, kill (to sacrifice people) and to destroy people.  Jesus Christ ought to know better than anyone, since the knowledge and understanding of his life and what it means to mortalkind, the new birth above in God's paternal Spirit (John 3), was lifted from the people of the land in his generation.


The religious leaders consistently killed all the prophets throughout the history of Israel, throughout their generations (Mat. 23:30-31, 37; Luke 6:23-26, 11:47-50; 13:34; *Acts 7:52), to shut their mouths from making the knowledge of the coming redeemer known. And the lawyers were willing participants in this, therefore making them accessories to all those crimes, for doing their part to keep the people ignorant of the prophet's prophecies, the knowledge and understanding of them.  Jesus referred to them all as the children of their father the devil (John 8:44)!  


Today, in this age of God's Grace, in most all "Christian" denominations the knowledge and understanding of all those prophecies is still kept hidden, especially those prophecies associated with Joel 2:28-30, concerning the new birth above in God's paternal seed, his gift of holy Spirit, the baptism in the gift of holy Spirit from Christ Jesus, which he was sent and came to do through making it available to mortalkind through his shed blood, as John the Baptist preached and taught as well (Mat. 3:11). 



185 - unmixed (akeraios, adj.) - This idiom is identical to our western idiom we say, "Don't get mixed up in that" i.e. a crime of some kind, or when we say, "Don't get mixed up with the wrong crowd".  



204 - an angle tip (akrogōniaios, adj.) - This is a dual compound of the words akron, meaning the extreme part of something, such as the tip of something, and gōnia, an angle, or a corner, depending upon contextual associations.  Gōnia (Strong's # 1137) should be translated as an angle if the idea of measuring or plotting geographical coordinates is given in its contexts (Mat. 6:5; Rev. 7:1, 20:8), or of building and construction of any kind is given in its contexts, which suggests gōnia is used to mean the angle of the tool of a plumb line and a bob stone to be used in that construction (Mat. 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; 1 Pet. 2:7). 


These NT contexts should be understood in light of their remote OT prophetic contexts of God's promised coming new covenant, and the building of his true "Tent", the one body of Christ, his new holy place!  Gonia should be translated as corner if the idea of secrecy is given in any contexts of it usages (Acts 26:26).  From the noun gōnia comes the closely associated noun gonu (Strong's # 1119) meaning a knee, from the angle of the leg which is produced when the knee is bent.


Akrogōniaios is used twice in the texts (Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6), in which of both contexts, on account of the righteousness of God which believers have received through belief in Jesus' name, the subject of God building his new holy place out of those believers, the prophesied holy place which he builds using his own hand, is magnificently presented.   I believe its usages are references to a bob stone on the end of a plumb line, and specifically the perfectly pointed tip of the bob stone on the end of a plumb line, such as is prophesied by Amos in 7:7-8.  I take the plumb line as being the angle, i.e., straight truth, and the bob stone as being the tip of the angle, that bob stone being a metaphor for Christ Jesus, who is the Word of God made flesh, who has set the straight vertical standard of God for truth and righteousness.  Akrogōniaios' Hebrew counterpart is mishqōleth, most often translated as plummet or plumb-line.  See Isaiah 28:17.





The "line" portion of a plumb line, which line can be quite long, shows the perfectly vertical angle from which all the various horizontal plane measurements are to be made.  The bob portion of a plumb line, the "head", being on the lower end of the line, its perfectly pointed tip must remain pointing exactly at a specific mark (i.e., God's Word) on the foundation, in order for the line to remain perfectly vertical, and thusly all horizontal plane measurements taken from it to begin from the same vertical axis. 


The following is a photograph of a collection of limestone plumb bobs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  These plumb bobs date back to the 19th or 20th dynasty, about 1295-1070 B.C., and were excavated and discovered in the Memphite region by the Egyptian Expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.



In practical application, a plumb line insures that a tower, for example, is built straight up.  As each layer of stone is laid, beginning with the first layer upon the foundation, and measuring horizontally outward from the plumb line to the desired distance, a perfect circular wall can be built upwards, one layer of stone at a time.  In this way, the wall being built all the way around the plumb line can form a perfect circle, and the tower can be built straight up, which straightness insures the strength and integrity of the stone wall, and subsequently the tower which it forms! 


I believe this is substantiated through a clearer understanding of the verse references in the NT about the "domed-roof house", "the angle tip", "the head of an angle", and the "tent of David", and tracing those references back into the OT writings.  Christ Jesus, and apostles Paul and Peter use these terms in their references to, and quotes of, OT prophets and writers.  These new testament references help us to understand those OT prophecies, which when placed side by side and examined very carefully show the various veiled OT prophecies of the coming one body of Christ, the true "tent" of the God, made with his own "hand". 


Many translators have translated this word as "corner" in most of its occurrences, which I believe is not only very misleading, but wrong!  Every stone, in order to be a "corner stone" must obviously have an angle cut into, or onto it.  But that doesn't necessarily mean that in every stone in which an angle is cut, or every stone which is cut into an angle, is a corner stone.  The word "corner" does not appear in the Greek texts of the NT writings.  Where it has been translated as "corner" is based upon the appearance of the word gōnia, which simply means an angle or a corner which is formed by an angle, depending upon its associated contexts. 


In the holy scriptures, the purpose for the use of an angle of some kind is absolutely not inherent in the meaning of the word itself, but must be found in the immediate, local, and remote contexts in which its usage appears, and especially across all of its contextual usages in which contexts the subject matter is very similar, if not identical.  Anyone who does word studies of the words in the Hebrew or Greek texts of the Bible, and especially word studies of the morphologies of those words, may have already determined for themselves.


Please see my study, "God's Desired True "Tent", his "Domed-roof House"!



235 - but (alla, conj.; de, conj., 1161)De is a primary particle used as a conjunction.  There are two words in the Greek text often translated as but; they are de and alla.  Both are considered as adversative conjunctions, but there is a big difference between how they're used.  Strong's defines de as "adversative and continuative", continuative meaning it marks additional sequels of explanation.  De is a mild adversative conjunction, used about 2,870 times in the texts in the new covenant writings, often times not used to point of adversity between two things, but simply diversity between things, and/or continuation.  De is often used to append another line of thought to a premise already stated.  Sometimes multiple uses of de can create large run-on sentences, through which translators must keep track of which pronouns refer back to which nouns.  Run-on sentences are common in the Koiné Greek new covenant writings, especially in apostle Paul's letters. 


An example of how de is used to express diversity:  In English we would say, "This is John, and this is Sharon, and this is Michael, and this is Katherine, and this is Mark, and this ..." and so on.  But in the Greek it could be said thusly, "But (de) this is John; but (de) this is Sharon; but (de) this is Michael; but (de) this is Katherine; but (de) this is Mark; but (de) this ..." and so on, using de similar to how we would use and.  The Greek uses and (kai) like English does also.  So you can see why I say de is often used as a diversative conjunction, because it is most often used to mark out diversity between clauses, and not necessarily adversity.  So when you see de in the text, don't always expect to see adversity between things, but mostly continuation and diversity.  In Matthew 1, beginning with the first usage of de, the word translated as and in English, is almost exclusively the word de in the text, throughout the entire chapter, which clearly shows its common, diversitive nature of usage;


Matthew 1:2 (LIT/UBS4) Abraham (Abraam) generated (egennēsen) the (ton) Isaac (Isaak);


but (de) Isaac (Isaak) generated (egennēsen) the (ton) Jacob (Iakōb);


but (de) Jacob (Iakōb) generated (egennēsen) the (ton) Judah (Ioudan), and (kai) the (tous) brothers (adelphous) of him (autou);


Matthew 1:3 (LIT/UBS4) but (de) Judah (Ioudas) generated (egennēsen) the (ton) Phares (phares) and (kai) the (ton) Zara (zara) out (ek) of the (tēs) Thamar (thamar);


but (de) Phares (phares) generated (egennēsen) the (ton) Esrom (esrōm);


but (de) Esrom (esrōm) generated (egennēsen) the (ton) Aram (aram );


Now alla is a strong adversative conjunction, used about 637 times.  It is so strong in its usage to point out adversity that in my translations I capitalize every letter of its English equivalent, as "BUT".   Alla is used to almost shout out the adversity to get our attention so we don't miss the point, because the point BUT (alla) makes after the premise is so opposite the premise.  Therefore, the adversity in every context in God's Word where alla is used, is very important to know, among all of the other important things in the context to know.  For example, here's alla's first usage in the gospel writings:


Mat. 4:4 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) [Jesus] having been caused to make [a] decision (apokritheis), he enunciated (eipen), “It has been written (gegraptai), ‘The (ho) mortal (anthrōpos) shall absolutely not cause himself to live (ouk zēsetai) upon (ep) bread (artō) alone (monō), BUT (all’), upon (epi) every (panti) statement (rhēmati) being caused to go out (ekporeuomenō) through (dia) [a] mouth (stomatos) of God (theou)!’”


In Matthew 4:4 Matthew records what Jesus said should be our True daily bread, which is, "every statement being caused to go out through a mouth of God!"  So, judging from the usage of the word all (a variation of alla) in the text, do you think Jesus is trying to make an emphatic point?  Absolutely yes!  Jesus could have said what he said in such a meek and unemphatic way to cause Matthew to use the word de instead, when he recorded what Jesus said.  But Matthew used all’, meaning BUT, to show Jesus said it with emphatic gusto!  This is why I capitalize the rendering of alla as BUT in English, and finish the sentence with an exclamation point, to be sure the reader notices that there is an emphatic adversity being exclaimed in the text.  Notice the usage of the emphatic particle of negation, ouk, instead of its weaker associated word, .  If in the text the missing ellipsis were supplied, "BUT, [the mortal shall live] upon ...", the verb shall live with its future tense would be in the imperative mood, making it a command of Jesus Christ, meaning it must be done, no ifs, ands or buts about it; mortals must live upon every statement going out of the mouth of God. 


So how important must it be for mortals to live by every statement being caused to go out through a mouth of God?  Maybe even important enough to be an issue of salvation?  If Jesus is getting ready to die so all who believe may live, now and in eternity, then I would say the usage of alla, BUT, in this verse is fairly important.  Most all 637 usages of alla in the new covenant writings are within contexts of subject matters which are just this important. 


Now you see how different in meaning de is from alla.  Virtually all English translations give the reader no clue to the usage of alla in the text versus the usage of de, and thusly the reader misses completely the intended strong, emphatic, exclamatory emphasis God meant the reader to see and understand.  In Matthew 4:4, the emphatic usage of the particle of negation ouk, together with the usage of the very emphatic conjunction alla, together with the emphasis from the usage of the figure of speech for the missing ellipsis "the mortal shall live", together with its future verb tense in the imperative mood, grammatically screams out to the reader not to miss the meaning of this, what Jesus Christ has said!



238 - being allegorized (allēgoreō, verb) - Gal. 4:22-31 is an extended metaphor, which is an allegory, because it compares Abraham's two sons, the one born through the bond woman and the one born through the free woman, as being representative of two distinctly unique covenants respectively; the old covenant leading to bondage to the penalty of sin, and the new covenant leading to freedom from the bondage to the penalty of sin.


Abraham's two sons:




1. The son generated out of the young maid (Gal. 4:22) was Ishmael, who was generated out of Hagar (Gen. 16:7-16).  Hagar was a female slave of Abraham's wife Sarah (Gen. 16:1).  Ishmael was generated down the desire of the flesh, down the desire of Sarai and Abram for them to have a son (Gen. 16:1-2; Gal. 4:23). 


The son Ishmael represents the covenant God made with Hagar (Gen. 16:7-16; Gal. 4:24) and the Mosaic Law covenant with the children of Israel, which made those under it slaves to it, and in bondage to the penalty of breaking it, which penalty was death.  Hagar who was a purchased possession of Abram and Sarai (Gen. 17:12-13) generated the son Ishmael into slavery (Gal. 4:24). 


Mount Sinai is a metaphor for the Mosaic Law covenant God made with the children of Israel.  Thusly mount Sinai and that covenant are both metaphors for Hagar (Gal. 4:25).  Hagar is a metaphor for mount Sinai in Arabia (Gal. 4:25), of which all those under that covenant of God are in slavery to sin and death.


Yet another metaphorical reference in this chain of metaphors, which makes this passage in Gal. 4:22-31 an allegory (an extended metaphor), is that this mount Sinai in Arabia "is in line with", i.e. corresponds to the Jerusalem now (Gal. 4:25), (the condition of Jerusalem at the time of apostle Paul's writing his letter to the Galatian ecclesia), because that Jerusalem is in slavery with the ones born of her (Gal. 4:25).  This concludes that the reason why that Jerusalem was then under slavery of some kind is because its inhabitants were primarily the posterity of Abram through Hagar, and subsequently out of the son Ishmael, a son born into slavery.  They killed God's promised redeemer, the one whom God sent to free them, as well as the whole world, from slavery and bondage to sin, and the penalty of sin which was death.


Paul's statement in Gal. 4:26 that the Jerusalem up high is a free Jerusalem, obviously describes a different Jerusalem than the one currently in slavery of some kind; which Jerusalem is apparently being down lower.   


We can understand what apostle Paul meant by the free Jerusalem up high, and the enslaved Jerusalem down lower, through examining other passages where these designations used. 


John 8:23 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he was saying (elegen) to them (autois), “You (humeis) are (este) out (ek) of the things (tōn) down below (katō);


I (egō) am (eimi) out (ek) of the things (tōn) up high (anō).  


You (humeis) are (este) out (ek) of the (tou) cosmos (kosmou) of this (toutou);


I (egō) am (eimi) absolutely not (ouk) out (ek) of the (tou) cosmos (kosmou) of this (toutou)!”


Jesus refers to the things down lower as being the cosmos, i.e., the creation including the earth.


In Acts 2:19, of apostle Peter quoting God in the Joel 2:28-32 prophecy, he explains to the people what they were seeing and hearing on that great day of Pentecost:


Acts 2:19 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) I shall give (dōsō) wonders (terata) in (en) the (tō) heaven (ouranō) up high (anō), and (kai) signs (sēmeia) upon (epi) the (tēs) land (gēs) down below (katō):


Apostle Paul wrote, in his letter to the believers in the area of Colosse,


Col. 3:1 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), if (ei) you were awakened together with (sunēgerthēte) the (tō) Christ (Christō), search (zēteite) for the things (ta) above (anō), of where (hou) the (ho) Christ (Christos) is (estin), causing himself to sit down (kathēmenos) in (en) right (dexia) of the (tou) God (theou).


Col. 3:2 (LIT/UBS4) Think (phroneite) of the things (ta) above (anō), not (mē) the things (ta) upon (epi) the (tēs) land (gēs).


We can see that the Jerusalem which is of the son Ishmael, of the female slave Hagar, is in the cosmos, down lower, on earth.  But the Jerusalem which is of the son Isaac, of the free woman Sarah, this is presently a heavenly Jerusalem.


Apostle Paul implies that the posterity of Abraham through his son Isaac, generated from the free woman Sarah, are the "free ones" which inhabit the free Jerusalem up high, above, in heaven.


The son of Abram generated by the female slave Hagar, which son born in slavery was Ishmael, he and his lineage is a metaphor for all those sons of the flesh (Gal. 4:29). 


The sons of Hagar through Ishmael, the sons having been generated down flesh, are the ones pursuing after the sons of Sarah through Isaac, the sons having been generated down Spirit (Gal. 4:29).


Ishmael, and all those of him born in slavery shall no, absolutely not inherit God's inheritance together with Isaac, and those of him born in freedom (Gal. 4:30)!  Through the works of the law absolutely no one shall be made righteous (Gal. 2:16, 3:1-10).




2. The son generated out of the free woman (Gal. 4:22) was Isaac, who was generated out of Sarah (Gen. 17:15-19).  Sarah was a free woman, not a female slave, but the wife of Abram (Gen. 16:1).  Isaac was the son generated out of God's desire, and his promise to Abraham and Sarah (Gen. 17:15-19; Gal. 4:23).  The son Isaac represents the covenant God made with Abraham (Gen. 17:1-22; Gal. 4:24), who was a son of Abraham, generated out of Sarah a free woman, through God's desire and promise to them. 


Hagar, the slave woman of Sarah, is a metaphor for mount Sinai in Arabia (Gal. 4:25).  Sarah the free woman is a metaphor for another "mountain" of which apostle Paul does not specifically indicate in this passage in Gal. 4.  In Heb. 12:22 the writer of Hebrews designates this mountain as being mount Zion, and the heavenly Jerusalem is designated as "the city of the living God". 


The "Jerusalem" up high is the free Jerusalem, because it is inhabited with the posterity of Abraham through his son Isaac, who was generated as a free son through the free woman Sarah, Abraham's wife (Gal. 4:25b-26).  Apostle Paul states that the Jerusalem up high is the "mother of us", i.e. the mother of all those who believe, as Abraham is the father of all those who believe (Rom. 4:11); which Jerusalem up high is a metaphor for the free woman Sarah, the wife of Abraham, to whom God promised them a son out of God's own desire. 


Sarah is the mother of all of those who believe upon the name of Jesus, on account of Christ Jesus, the promised coming redeemer, was generated through the son of Abraham who was born free from slavery, Isaac.  Out of Isaac Jacob was generated, and out of Jacob Judah was generated, through which lineage came Mariam, the mother of Christ Jesus down the flesh, which lineage is recorded in (Mat. 1:1-16).


Sarah the free woman, is the mother of all those who have been born as free ones through the lineage of Isaac, the son of Abraham who was born free.  These are the ones apostle Paul calls "brothers" (Gal. 4:28), the ones who have believed upon the evangelism of Jesus Christ (Gal. 1:11-12).  These are the ones who are "ones born of promise" (Gal. 4:28; Isa. 54:1-).  These ones, "the sons of the one who was married" (Isa. 54:1) are the ones who all shall be "ones taught of God" (Isa. 54:13). 


The son of Abram generated by the free woman, Sarah, Abraham's wife, which son born free was Isaac, he and his lineage is a metaphor for all those sons born of the Spirit of God, for all those who have believed upon the evangelism of Jesus Christ and have received a new birth above  (Gk. ano), up high, in God's paternal gift of his holy Spirit (Gal. 4:29). 


The sons of Hagar through Ishmael, the sons having been generated down flesh, are the ones pursuing after the sons of Sarah through Isaac, the sons having been generated down Spirit (Gal. 4:29).


Ishmael, and all those of him born in slavery shall no, absolutely not inherit God's inheritance together with Isaac, and those of him born in freedom (Gal. 4:30)!  Through the works of the law absolutely no one shall be made righteous (Gal. 2:16, 3:1-10).


For the freedom of the free ones down the lineage of Isaac, see Rom. 6:13-23, 8:21; 2 Cor. 3:17; Gal. 5:1; James 1:25; 1 Pet. 2:16; John 8:31-44.


The two covenants:


1. The old Mosaic Law covenant, i.e., the Law of Works covenant (Exod. 19:1-20:17; Mal. 4:4; *Rom. 3:19-28, 4:13-16, 5:13, 20, 7:7-9; Gal. 2:16, 3:10-12, 4:4-5; Heb. 10:1), under which covenant the sin of mortalkind was defined, and the penalty for that sin was installed, which penalty is death.




2. The new Law of Belief covenant (*Rom. 3:20-28, 20, 6:13-15, 7:6, 8:2-4, 10:4; Gal. 3:5-14; James 1:25), under which covenant in Jesus' shed blood the penalty for sin is uninstalled for all those who have believed upon the name of Jesus and have been made righteous in him, and so mortalkind is released and made free form the penalty of sin, which penalty is death. 




All through Paul's letter to the ecclesia at Galatia and thereabouts his points have been around the truth that those in Christ are no longer bound to the old Mosaic Law covenant, the Law of Works as he calls it also, to do all of the ordinances of the law (Rom. 3:27).  Those who believe upon the name of Jesus, the Christ, are now made 100% righteous in God's eyes, which keeping the ordinances of the old law could never do for anyone (Gal. 3:24).  The Mosaic law simply wasn't equipped to make anyone 100% righteous. 


Since Jesus Christ has died and shed his blood, and since God's gift of holy Spirit has begun to be poured out on the day of Pentecost (about 30 AD) upon all who believe in the name of Jesus, all of the works of keeping the ordinances of the law covenant have been replaced by one "work", which "work" is TO BELIEVE God's Word.  This is why Paul refers to the new covenant God has made with those who have been born above in God's gift of holy Spirit as the Law of Belief (Rom. 3:27), and the Law of the Christ (Gal. 6:2).  This new birth above causes one to be paternally born of God's seed, to be a new creation, one free from slavery to sin, and bondage to the penalty of sin.  Apostle Paul makes this point even more forceful in the last two chapters of Galatians, 5 and 6.



281 - truly (amēn, adverb) - See 3303, men.



293 - a throw-around net (amphiballō, common noun) - In the west this kind of net is called a Cast Net, or a Throw Net.  This is a net which is small enough for a man to throw into the water by himself, usually no more that 12 feet in diameter.  This net has a draw string which is pulled to close the net after it has sank to a proper depth, hopefully around a school of fish.  At the proper time the draw string is pulled to close the net at the bottom, and then to drag the net to the boat of shoreline.  Here's an informative web site.



314 - read up (anaginōskō, verb) - Literally, know up.  It is almost identical to our English colloquialism, to read up on something, to become knowledgeable about it.  Matthew and Mark quoted Jesus using this colloquialism fourteen times.  It is used by Luke, John, Philip, Paul and James as well.  Jesus used it exclusively of reading up on God's Word, to become knowledgeable of it; many times in the context of accosting the Judean religious leaders for their magnificent ignorance of God's Word.



327 - to search up, searching up (anazēteō, verb) - This appears to be an ancient version of our modern idiom to look someone up, which we use to refer to a thorough search for someone. This idiom is used in Luke 2:44 and Acts 11:25. The use of the preposition ana, meaning up, prefixed to zēteō, meaning to search, is used to connote the idea of the intended thoroughness of the search until that someone is finally found.  In Greek both the prepositions kata, meaning down, and ana, meaning up, are abundantly prefixed to verbs to connote the intended meaning of the thoroughness of the action of the verb.



337 - to take up (anaireō, verb) - A common idiom meaning to kill.  It is similar to our English idiom, to take out, or to take down, often used to mean to destroy or kill an enemy or opponent.



344 - to bow up (anakamptō, verb) - This is another reference to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another.  From the contexts in which it is used it appears to me to refer to a farewell bow of some kind, a bow which is done when saying goodby and departing.  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings, introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to this custom. For a comprehensive explanation of this custom and verse references see section 4352 here in the LITG.



345 - to lie up (anakeimai, verb) - This is one of the various words used in the texts to describe one of the customary postures taken while eating, of lying on one's side while eating.  See also 347, 2621 and 4873.



347 - to recline up (aneklinō, verb) - This is one of the various words used in the texts to describe one of the various customary postures taken while eating, of sitting up.  Aneklinō is a compound of klinō, a reference to the incline or angle of one's body, and ana, meaning up.  In most of its seven usages in the biblical texts it refers to the posture one takes in preparation to eat (Mat. 8:11, 14:19; Mark 6:39; Luke 7:36, 12:37, 13:29).  In one passage the context doesn't give us a hint that after the baby Jesus was swaddled that he was fed, other than the use of aneklinō itself (Luke 2:7).  In Luke 2:7 a crib (phatnē) is a place out of which livestock are fed, i.e., a feeding trough.  Jesus Christ being placed in a feeding trough is a symbolic characterization and foretelling of he himself being food which others must eat for their own health and wholeness, specifically their spiritual wholeness.  Jesus taught this to his disciples (John 6:48-58. See also Mat. 4:4; Jer. 15:16; Eze. 2:8-10, 3:1-3).


In Mat. 26:28, Mark 14:24 and Luke 22:20 the liquid in the cup was a symbolic type to Jesus' physical blood, which itself was a specific type to the knowledge and understanding of God's life-giving Word, which Jesus was preaching and teaching.  In John 6:48-63 Jesus Christ explains to his disciples and us that we must "eat" and "drink" of him.  And he explains also exactly what is it which we all must "eat" and "drink" of him. 


"Eating" and "drinking" both refer to ways and/or methods of getting the knowledge and understanding of God's Word into our minds.  The two most common ways of getting the knowledge of God's Word into our minds is reading it, and hearing it preached.  In Jesus time the most common way of "eating" and "drinking" God's Word was hearing it preached by Jesus and his apostles.  The religious leaders were absolutely not preaching or teaching it. 


In these passages of Jesus teaching his disciples and us, he defines for us what are the two specific subject matters in God's Word which we must "eat" and "drink". 


1. We must "eat" Christ's "body", the true "bread" which came down from heaven, which specific knowledge and understanding of it is for us to believe for physical healing and wholeness now ("...for the bruising of him you were healed", 1Pet. 2:24, Isa. 53:3-5), and for our coming new body at our standing up out of dead ones. 


2. We must "drink" his "blood", which was shed to put through God's new covenant with all mortalkind, and for the letting go by God of the penalty for our sin, so that we wouldn't be required to suffer that penalty, which was death, the second death. 


The specific knowledge and understanding of what Jesus Christ's broken body means for us, and the specific knowledge and understanding of what Jesus Christ's shed blood means for us, are the two categories of subject matter which are foundational requirements of learning for everyone being a disciple of Christ Jesus. These are the two great subject matters of the specific knowledge and understanding of God's Word which we are to get, i.e., "eat" and "drink", and put into our minds, and believe it (Rom. 3:25).


For more, see 1 Cor. 10:16-17, 11:20-30; Eph. 1:7, 2:13; Col 1:14, 20; Heb. chaps. 9-10, 12:24, chap. 13; 1 Pet. 1:2, 19; 1 John 1:7; Rev. 1:5, 7:14, 12:11.


See also 345, 2621 and 4873.



350 - to adjudicate (anakrinō, verb) - A colloquialism made of appending the preposition up (ana) to the verb krino (to judge) to give the action of the verb a sense of being done all the way to the point of completion.  It literally means to judge up something, similar to our English colloquialisms to look up something or someone, or to read up on something. In English we use the preposition up similarly in other colloquialisms, to eat it up, or to give it up, or to get liquored up, using up to give the action of the verb a sense of being done to completion.  Eat it up means to eat it until nothing remains to be eaten; until what is being eaten is completely gone.  Likewise, to judge it up means to gather into mind or recall into mind all the available and necessary information needed to come to a verified, substantiated, etc., final conclusion about the matter at hand.  This colloquialism meaning to adjudicate, is used 16 times in the new covenant writings.


This colloquialism is first used in Luke 23:14, in the record where Pilate examined (KJV), i.e., adjudicated Jesus to come to the conclusion that there was insufficient evidence to substantiate the claims by the chief priests that Jesus had done things worthy of death.  


It is used in Acts 17:11 also, about the Berean believers who, after hearing God's Word taught, judged up for themselves through verifying what was taught with the holy scriptures to verify that the things they heard taught about Jesus were true. 


This colloquialism is used in 1 Cor. 14:24 also, in the record of apostle Paul's hypothetical scenario, where if believers are prophesying and there comes one in among them who is an unbeliever, that their prophesying under influence of holy Spirit shall cause them to speak the things which the unbeliever needs to hear to cause him to repent.  This indicates that it is actually the one holy Spirit which is at work in all of the ones prophesying, who has judged up the heart of the unbeliever, and who gives the words to the believers to speak in their prophesies which reach the heart of the unbeliever and cause him to repent and believe.  This is how the manifestation of prophesy is supposed to work within the assembly (ekklesia) of believers.  This is how prophecy becomes a sign to both unbelievers and believers of the power of holy Spirit at work, because the unbeliever hears the prophecies, then repents and believes.  The unbeliever turning from death unto life is the sign produced by the believer's manifestations of prophecy, a sign which believers are hoping to see when they gather together into an assembly.



356 - wording-up (analogia, noun, 356) - Another "up" idiom meaning to get filled up with God's Word.  This noun appears one time in the new covenant writings, and is used by apostle Paul in Rom. 12:6 about a believer manifesting prophecy, one of the gracious things of God as described by Paul here in his letter to the Roman believers.   God's Word cannot be spoken, or prophesied, if not first the one speaking has their mind filled with God's Word, i.e., has something to speak.  Getting our minds filled up, i.e., worded-up with God's Word, builds and fills our minds up with precious belief, because belief comes through "hearing" God's Word (Rom. 10:17).  Our precious belief comes from our wording-up our minds in the knowledge of God's Word.  How can a believer believe what God says if he doesn't know what God says?  Likewise, how can a believer speak forth God's Word if he doesn't know it? 


Apostle Paul states that those who prophesy should be those believers who build up or word-up their belief in God's Word through building up their knowledge of God's Word in their minds, i.e., wording-up their minds with God's Word.  The Biblical usage and meaning of prophecy is not simply foretelling of future events, but primarily simply speaking forth the knowledge of God's Word which has already been revealed and already known by the one speaking.  This is the meaning of prophecy in its majority of usages. 


Therefore it's simply a logical conclusion that the more knowledge of God's Word which a believer has built up, or worded-up in his mind, the greater shall be his belief in God's Word, and therefore the greater shall be his ability to speak forth God's Word with belief, conviction and authority, which is how it should be spoken (Mat. 7:29).  This sets the level of the bar, or bench mark, for those who wish to speak in the assembly of called out believers, as being believers who are dedicated to being workman in God's Word, diligently searching for the knowledge and understanding of God's Word, to build up their belief, to word-up on God's Word in their minds (2 Tim. 2:15).  Those who have not dedicated their lives to becoming workman of God's Word, and who have not already devoted a considerable number of years building the knowledge, understanding and belief in God's Word in their minds, have no business whatsoever presuming to speak for God in the presence of others, in the presence of unbelievers or believers.



357 - cause yourselves to word-up (analogizomai, verb) - Used in Heb. 12:3, I believe this idiom means to remember, or to look it up for one's self, and pay particular attention to the words of the prophet, the ones written quoting the God speaking of child-training his own children (Prov. 3:11-12).  The writer challenges his listeners to cause themselves to remember, or look it up for themselves, the words of the prophet, quoting God about him child-training his own children! The writer implies his listeners need to be child-trained as well!

Therefore, the listeners should not only cause themselves to remember and "word-up" in their own minds the meanings of each and every word of which God spoke, but cause themselves to be child-trained as well!



367 - word-up (analogizomai, verb) - This is the verb form of the noun form given above.  This noun appears one time in the new covenant writings, and is used by the writer (Paul?) of Heb. in 12:3 as a reference to filling up our minds with the knowledge of God's Word about Jesus Christ's sacrifice of himself for us, about him enduring the antilogy of the unbelieving sinners against him.  We are to have in our minds, the minds of those called into the Ministry of Reconciliation, the accurate and complete knowledge of what and how Jesus endured throughout his ministry, being opposed by those who were opposed to the God and his Word.



372 - a time of resting up (anapausis, noun) - To take a break from activity.  To stop or slow down and rest.  To take a pause from anything laborious.   See 373.



373 - to rest up (anapauō, verb) - This word implies a temporary cessation of activity.  This idiom is very similar, if not identical, in meaning to the English idiom rest up, which we would tell someone if we wished that they would get some rest.  It is similar to our English idiom wait up also, which may imply a shorter duration of time of pause than rest up.  However, Jesus may have said this metaphorically (Mat. 11:28) to imply another kind of "refreshment" for the body and soul, perhaps a refreshment through the gift of holy Spirit becoming energized within us.  The ancients had a like idiom, resting down, which Dr. Bullinger says, "implies a final rest, as No. 1 (anapausō) does a temporary pause." 



377 - to fall up (anapiptō, verb) - Anapiptō is a root which has about five or six inflected forms.  It's an idiom meaning to take an orderly position with others, a position in a line, row, circle, or group.  It is similar to our English military idiom, the command to "fall in", into position.  In some contexts it simply means to take a seat at a table, or in a formation with others, to eat.  Anapiptō is used eleven times in the Textus Receptus, and always in the context of people eating together.  The KJV often translates it as sit down, sat down, etc.  However, anapiptō means more than simply sitting down, it means to sit down in an orderly position, especially in relationship to others eating. 


In Mark 6:40, in the record of Jesus feeding the crowd with five loaves and two fishes, he ordered the crowd to sit down (anapiptō) in patches (prasiai), in patches of hundreds (hekaton) and in patches\s of fifties (pentēkonta).


In Luke 17:7, in a passage (Luke 17:5-10) in which Jesus' apostles requested of him to give them belief, Jesus explains to them how they can gain belief.  A slave coming in from working outside doesn't customarily come in and immediately fall up, i.e., pull up a chair to the dinner table, until after first serving dinner to his master.  Then the slave eats.  This is our duty as believers and slaves for our heavenly Father and his son Christ Jesus.


Jesus begins in verse 6 by explaining to them first that if they had only a very little belief, the amount of belief the size of a kernel (seed) of a mustard tree, that they could do a lot, such as command a sycamine tree to uproot itself and be planted into the sea.  Then Jesus gives further instruction to them in verse 7-10, using the example of how a master conducts himself with a slave of him. 


The slave is not done working for his master until his master says so.  If we're slaves for our heavenly Father and for his son Christ Jesus, then we're not done working for them each day until either of them says so.  The children, or slaves as in this passage, don't call the shots, the parents do.


Further more. the context is about the slave working for his master.  The master supplies his slave with the things his slave needs to stay healthy and whole so he can do his work effectively.  Under our heavenly Father's new covenant, he pays wages / does gracious things for us when we do work for him, doing those things pleasing in his sight according to his Word.  He pays wages to us both now while we're on earth, and in the future in heaven.  (Mat. 5:12, 6:1, 10:41-42, 20:8; Mark 9:41; *Luke 6:23, *35-38, 10:7; John 4:36; Rom. 4:4; *8:28; *1 Cor. 3:8-9, *14-15, *9:16-22; *2 Cor. 9:8; Rev. 11:18, 22:12).  Answers to prayer are considered by our heavenly Father to be "wages" as well.  But the the coming to pass of all of his great and precious promises in our lives are considered as gifts, not wages (2 Pet. 1:1-4).


Throughout this passage in Luke 17:5-10, Jesus' answer to his apostles request that he add belief to them, is answered by he explaining to them that they build their own level of belief in God and his Word, they do it for themselves, through being obedient slaves. 


Apostle Paul explains the starting point for a believer to begin building his or her own belief (Rom. 10:14-17).  A believer begins building his or her own belief through first learning God's Word, which explains exactly what believers must do to be pleasing in God's sight.  Then when those believers actually do what God has asked / commanded them to do, then he pays them wages / rewards, through causing all of his grace to abound to them in their lives, so that they may be self-sufficient to be able to abound into every good work for God and his son Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 9:8).  Here it is again, when a believer studies God's Word to learn what to to, and how to do it, then he actually does it, then God pays a wage, i.e., he causes his grace to abound in that believer's life in areas of his own needs.  Then that believer learns to try this process again, to determine if it was just a coincidence.  Then it works again, and then it works again, and then that believer's confidence and belief in God and his Word begins to grow.  This process becomes self-perpetuating, and the level of belief a believer can grow into seems unlimited.


To those unbelievers and mockers who demand, "Show me God?", I say to them, show the God to yourselves, if you have the time and courage to try it.


In Luke 22:14 after Peter and John had found an upper landing, there they prepared the Passover, and Jesus and his apostles fell up together there.


In John 6:10, after Jesus washed the feet of his disciples he fell up back into an orderly position among them where they were sitting or lying, and eating.



390 - turn up, to turn up, he turned up, we turned up, etc. (anastrephō, verb) - Identical to our English idiom, to become present, as in, to turn up at an event, or to show up.  He turned up to play football.  his name turns up in the newspaper occasionally.  It means to be found also, as in, he turned up the missing papers.  In 2 Cor. 1:12 the KJV says, we had our conversation, which is completely erroneous because they ignored the idiom.  The text says, BUT, in [the] grace of God we turned up in the cosmos, and more abundantly toward you!  This is Paul's boast about the benefit he and those with him are to the believers in Corinth, because they were found, i.e. they turned up not only in the cosmos, but more specifically the area of Corinth, to the benefit of the Corinthians.  In Eph. 2:3, apostle Paul states that in time past he and the believers in Ephesus turned up [in the cosmos] in the lusts of the flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the thoughts.  Apostle Peter uses this same idiom in 1 Pet. 1:17, that when we are praying to the Father, being in his presence, that we turn up, i.e., show up, come into his presence in fear, at the time of our side-housing with the Father.  A similar English idiom is turn out, as in, The circus drew a big turn out last night.



395 - of risings (anatolōn, noun) - Refers to the place where the sun rises, the Eastern horizon.



397 - fed up (anetraphō, verb) - To be fed with food until full, until filled up.  



402 - make up room, they made up room, made up space (anechōrēō, verb) - Very close in meaning to our English idiom, to make room.  Example: to make room or space in a closet to store something.  It is used often in the texts in the sense of to put space between you and something or someone else


In Mat. 2:12 the Magi received admonishments in a dream, not to go back and bow up Herod, to honor his request to them.  And so they left visiting the Christ child and made up room (between them and Herod) traveling back into their own country through a different way. 


In Mat. 9:24, when Jesus went into the crowded house to heal a man's little girl, he told them to make up room, i.e., get out of the house and give me room to work.  This verb is used most often in a contextual sense of urgency to make room for something.  It's used in the sense of people making room in their hearts for repentance toward God, and for making room in their heads for the knowledge of God's Word.


In Mark 3:1-7, after Jesus talked with the religious leaders in the synagogue and corrected their ignorance of the holy scriptures, and then before their eyes healed a man with a dried hand, which whole scenario made them look like religious but powerless fools, who afterward counseled together to destroy him.  And so Jesus, along with his disciples, made up space between he and those religious leaders, going toward the sea.  The signs, miracles and wonders which Jesus did drew the people's attention, and thereby the people themselves, away from the religious leaders, on account of which they hated Jesus and wanted to kill him.  I see this kind of envy, jealousy and hatred demonstrated by some religious leaders today, against people who are perceived as threats against other's adoration of them. 


The love of money, self-adoration, to be in control of and manipulate others, all these things are reasons why actors put on outward appearances to be perceived as true believers (2 Cor. 11:13-15; 2 Pet. 2:1; 1 John 4:1).  Jesus shows us how to expose them, and to epitomize them (John 8).  Although they have a swaggered walk, the have the convincing talk, especially the smooth talk (Mat. 15:8; Mark 7:6, 12:40; Luke 20:47; Rom. 3:13; et cetera), they have the well-dressed wardrobe/costume, and other showbiz props (Mat. 23:5), all they really are is false believers, actors as Jesus often called them (Gk. hupokritēs; Mat. 6:1-16, 7:5, 15, 15:7, 16:3, 22:18, 23:13-15, 23, 25, 27, 29, 24:11, 24; Mark 13:22; Gal. 2:4; 2 Tim. 3:3; et cetera).  They are unable to manifest the power of God's Spirit, but able to manifest the power of the devil and of demon spirits (John 8:44), especially to passive aggressively accuse and condemn others through insinuation and innuendo and outright lies (Luke 20:23; 1 Cor. 3:19; 2 Cor. 4:2; Eph. 4:14).  This demonstrates the very subtle and sly way the devil, characterized as a snake in the book of Genesis, attacks.


The primary distinguishing characteristic false believers always display is a lack of comprehensive in-depth knowledge of the holy scriptures, as Jesus always identifies about them (Mat. 22:29; Mark 12:24-27; et cetera).  They throw out their theological theories and inventions as darts, claiming they should be held in high esteem and respected, as if they were God's Word.  A very popular way of doing this is to point to their fudged Bibles, fudged with their theories and inventions, as if anyone who disagrees with "the Bible" must be heretical!  How clever!  Jesus pointed out to them the differences between their historical oral traditions, i.e. extra-scriptural theological and mortal-made inventions, and exactly what the ancient Hebrew texts of God's Word, and Jesus Christ (the Word of God which became flesh) actually said (Mat. 15:3, 6; Mark 7:1-13; Col. 2:8; 1 Pet. 1:18)! 


Apostle Paul agrees as well (Rom. 16:17; Col. 2:8; 2 Tim. 2:23; Tit. 3:9).  Let us make space away from them as fast as we can.



403 - of breath (anapsuxeōs, noun) - The AV, Darby, Rotherham and Young's Literal Translation all translate anapsuxeōs as "of refreshing", which dynamic equivalency is a little too general based upon the colloquial meaning inherent within the word, of catching your breath.  "Of refreshing" is negligent in that it leaves out the mention of "breath", the very meaning of the word (Gk., ana, up + psucho, to breathe, or better, to breathe up).  Anapsuxeōs literally means to catch up on your breathing, as if you have been running and have run out of breath, and you must now stop to catch up on breathing


In Acts 3:19-20 Peter implies that those who are un-repentant toward God, who are still living being affected by their sin which hasn't yet been forgiven, are figuratively and/or literally being run out of breath by the affects produced in their lives from those sins (Acts 5:1-5; James 1:13-15).  I take Peter's figurative usage of "breath" as meaning the knowledge of God's Word, the Word of life.  Peter gives us a great promise from God that those who repent shall receive from the face of God "times of catching up on their breath".  Whatever these particular times of catching up on are breath are from God, we know, as opposed to us being dead from lack of "breath", that they shall be to meet our specific needs and cause our lives to become much more abundant (John 10:9-10).  God shall give us his knowledge and wisdom whenever we need it.



416 - being squalled (anemizō, verb) - An idiom used in James 1:6.  A squall is a brief violent windstorm.  On the ocean, when a ship is caught in a squall, the drafts of air coming at it blow the ship off course and make it difficult to navigate and steer the ship in the intended direction.  James gives us this mental picture as an example to what happens to us when we don't rely upon God's Word as the Truth we should use in our decision-making.  When we try to steer our life using any information other than God's Word we come into a squall and the drafts of lies and deception coming at us blow our minds off course from making the right decision.



433 - is being upcoming (anēkō, verb) - Identical to our modern idiom of propriety, becoming.  Of a lady we may say, "It is not becoming of a lady to swear."  Or we may say of a gentleman, "It is not becoming of a gentleman to be impolite, discourteous, or uncaring."



436 - to stand opposed (anthistēmi, verb) - This means to take an offensive stand to oppose.  In Eph. 6:13, apostle Paul commands the believing disciples to stand opposed to the evil one, meaning the devil, since we are not to wrestle against flesh and blood (Eph. 6:12).  Unfortunately, the 1611 KJV, the KJV, Darby, Rotherham’s, Berry ’s, RSV, and many other translations use the English word withstand to translate the Greek text antistēnai.  This is a serious problem, because our English word withstand implies a passive and/or a defensive posture, the ability to lie there and take it when it hits you.  But antistēnai, from anti, lit. opposite, and histēmi, lit., to stand, by its very nature, implies an offensive posture, to take action; first to stand up, and then to keep on standing opposed (Gk., anti, i.e., opposite of it and face to face with it).  All through the holy scriptures holy Spirit is always saying, “Having stood, go and do such and such...”.  In God’s Word, the idea of standing is very commonly used in the sense of preparing to take deliberate action to do something.  It is not defensive at all, but offensive.  antistēnai is a verb which describes not reactive action, but proactive aggressive action.  In the context, both the use of pros in Eph. 6:11-12, motion toward a goal, and antistēnai, to stand opposite of and face to face with, or to stand opposed, clearly describe an offensive postures in joining into battle with the evil powers of darkness.



456 - I shall build up [a] domed-roof house (anoikodomeō, verb) - The two usages of this very important word are used in Acts 15:16-17, in which Luke quotes James quoting the prophecy of Amos, in Amos 9:11-12.  The domed-roof house can be tracked throughout the new testament writings using many Greek words in the texts, but especially Strong's numbers 456, 2026, 3618, 3619, and 4925 as well.


The verb anoikodomeō is a compound of three words: ana, meaning up, oikos meaning house, and  dōma meaning a rooftop or roof.  Given the context of Acts 15:16-17 and of Amos 9:11-12 of God building something, and that the word anoikodomeō is a verb in the indicative mood, future tense, active voice, in the first person, and singular, a literal translation of it would be I shall build up a rooftop house.  And so now you may ask me why do I translate it as I shall build up a domed-roof house?  My answer is because there is sometimes much more which goes into the meaning of a word, any word in any passage, such as immediate, local and remote contexts, than simply its morphology and part of speech; such as whether a word is used in an idiom or a figure of speech.  The contexts, contexts, and more contexts of how a word is used elsewhere means very much about how a word is defined by its biblical writer, and thusly how it should be translated. 


For example: What we, a reader of God's Word, should notice as we read and study all of the usages of a specific word, in all of the contexts in which it is used, is how often is a word, specifically anoikodomeō in this example, used by its biblical writer objectively versus subjectively?  In Acts 15:16-17 and in Amos 9:11-12 is God talking about building an objective literal tent/tabernacle of some kind, one which is made out of some kind of material, and/or stone, and/or wood, and/or metal, etc.?  Or is God talking about a subjective, metaphorical "tent/tabernacle" of some kind, some kind of a "tent/tabernacle" which is absolutely not made or built with human hands, one absolutely not built using common building materials used by mortalkind (Acts 17:24)?


According to Amos 9:11-12 and Acts 15:16-17, and all of these other associated words (see below), and in many of their verses and contexts, God is absolutely not talking about a human-built tent/tabernacle/temple of some kind in which he desires to home-down!  BUT, the God, and/or the messenger/writer of the text is talking about the head of an individual believer, and specifically the believer's mind inside his or her own head/skull as his desired homing-down holy place. 


The following is a list, by Strong's number, of scripture references which substantiate and corroborate God's prophetic true "tent", his holy place in which he has always desired to home-down.  The OT references are those mentioned in the NT references.  In essence, these related OT prophecies are prophecies of the coming one body of Christ, which full knowledge and understanding of it was kept secret by God in order to insure the completion of his plan for the redemption of mortalkind through the shed blood of his first born son, Jesus Christ (1 Cor. 2:8, 4-10). 


Apostle Paul refers to this subject, the veiled and hidden OT prophecies of the coming one body of Christ, as a mystery (Rom. 11:25, 16:25-26; 1 Cor. 2:7; Eph. 3:1-, 6:19; Col. 1:24-29, 4:3-4).  But now that we have God our Father's revelation of his plan, which was revealed through Christ Jesus to apostle Paul, and subsequently to us in Paul's writings, we can now trace this subject back into the OT (Prov. 25:2).  There anyone, who asks God the heavenly Father to teach him, can discover those gems of great prophetic Truth!


In the following examples, a believer is one who has believed upon the precious name of Jesus, in his shed blood and all that the God has caused it to mean for a believer's personal wholeness/salvation, which salvation comes through receiving the new birth above in the God the heavenly Father's seed, receiving a baptism in God's gift of holy Spirit from Christ Jesus.


456, anoikodomeō, I shall build up a domed-roof house, used 2 times out of 2 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Amos 7:7-8, 9:11-12; Acts 15:16);


886, acheiropoiētos, not hands-made, used 3 times out of 3 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Mark 14:58; 2 Cor. 5:1; Col. 2:11);


1774, enoikeō, in-housed, used 3 times out of 5 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Rom. 8:11; 2 Cor. 6:16; 2 Tim. 1:14);


2026, epoikodomeō, a domed-roof house built over, used 7 times out of 7 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (1 Cor. 3:10, 12, 14; Eph. 2:20; Col. 2:7; Jude 1:20);


2730, katoikēo, to home-down, used 5 times out of 47 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Acts 7:48; Acts 17:24; Eph. 3:17; Col. 1:19; Col. 2:9);


2732, katoikētērion, a homing-down place, used 1 time out of 2 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Eph. 2:22);


3438, monē, a place of stay, used 2 times out of 2 usages to refer to God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (John 14:2, 23);


3485, naos, a holy place, used 23 times out of 46 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (John 2:19, 21; 1 Cor. 3:16-17, 6:19; 2 Cor. 6:16; Eph. 2:21; Rev. 3:12, 7:15, 11:1-2, 19, 14:15, 17, 15:5-6, 8, 16:1, 17, *21:22);


3611, oikeō, to homestead, used 3 times out of 9 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Rom. 8:9, 11; 1 Cor. 3:16);


3614, oikia, a house, used 11 times out of 95 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Mat. 7:24-27; Luke 6:48-49; John 8:35, 14:2; 2 Cor. 5:1);


3618, oikodomēō, to build a domed-roof house, used 29 times out of 41 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Mat. 7:24, 26, 16:18, 21:33, 23:29, 26:61, 27:40; Mark 12:1, 14:58, 15:29; Luke 6:48-49, 12:18, 14:28, 30; Acts 7:49, 9:31, 20:32; Rom. 15:20; 1 Cor. 8:1, 10, 10:23, 14:4, 17; Gal. 2:18; 1 Thes. 5:11; 1 Pet. 2:5);


3619, oikodomē, [the building of] a domed-roof house/houses, used 15 times out of 18 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Rom. 14:19, 15:2; 1 Cor. 3:9, 14:3, 5, 12, 26; 2 Cor. 5:1, 10:8, 12:19, 13:10; Eph. 2:21, 4:12, 16, 29);


3624, oikos, a house, used 33 times out of 114 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Mat. 10:6, 12:44, 15:24, 21:13, 23:38; Mark 11:17; Luke 12:39, 14:23, 15:6, 16:4, 18:14, 19:5, 9, 46; John 2:16-17; 1 Tim. 3:15; Heb. 3:6, 8:10, 10:21; 1 Pet. 2:5, 4:17);


4633, skēnē, a tent, used 6 out of 25 times to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Acts 15:16; Heb. 8:2, 9:11; Rev. 13:6, 15:5, 21:3);


4925, sunoikodomeō, are being built together [into] a domed-roof house, used only 1 time to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Eph. 2:22);


5499, cheiropoiētos, hands-made, used 5 times out of 6 usages to refer to the God's new homing-down holy place in the head/mind of a believer, individually and/or collectively (Mark 14:58; Acts 7:48, 17:24; Heb. 9:11, 24).


In ALL of these passages I believe God is talking about a holy place in which to home-down, which holy place he himself has built for himself, which place is in the heart/mind and body of each and every individual believer who has believed upon the precious name of Jesus (1 Cor. 3:16; 6:19; John 2:21; Acts 7:48, 17:24), and who has received God the heavenly Father's gracious gift of himself, his gift of holy Spirit, through a baptism in it by Christ Jesus (Mat. 3:11).  The prophesied holy place of the God is collectively in the one body of Christ, and particularly in each and every member of Christ's one body, the one holy place absolutely not built with human hands, but literally built by he himself, for himself! 


One reason why I translate anoikodomeō as God saying "I shall build up a domed-roof house" is that I believe he is speaking of his "house" as being the one body of Christ, and thereby each and every member in particular!  It's simply a fact, human beings have heads on their shoulders shaped like domes, in which the God homes-down and makes his holy place collectively, in the one body of Christ collectively, and particularly in each one who has believed upon the precious name of Jesus and who has subsequently received Jesus' baptism in God's gift of holy Spirit, God's gift of himself! 


Believers build their own "house" as well, with the knowledge of God's Word.


Another reason why I translate anoikodomeō this way is that each and every individual's head/skull/brain and mind in it are metaphorically referred as a house by Jesus Christ.   Jesus Christ refers to our head, our skull and the grey matter in it, our own mind in our own head, as a house which we ourselves build up with the knowledge of God's Word (Mat. 7:24-27; Luke 6:47-49), and subsequently our BELIEF in God's Word (Rom. 10:17).  In our own head, in our own hairy "tent", our own domed-roof house, WE are responsible to build it up with the knowledge of God's Word and belief in God's Word.  The God promises to teach his children the knowledge and understanding of his Word (John 2:27, 6:45, 16:13; 1 John 5:6; 1 Thes. 4:9; Phil. 3:15), which knowledge, understanding and belief cleanses our minds/hearts (Eph. 5:26) to receive God's Spirit into us as his holy place, in which he desires to home-down! 


The place called "The Skull"


Yet another reason why I translate anoikodomeō this way is because I find it very antithetical that Jesus Christ died at the place called "The skull" (Mat. 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17), whose shed blood made it possible for both the God our heavenly Father, and Christ Jesus his firstborn son, to come and home-down in the skull/head/mind of each and every individual believer who has believed upon the precious name of Jesus, and has been baptized in God's gift of himself, his holy Spirit!  Do you think that "little coincidence", Jesus shedding his blood at the place called "The Skull" may be designed purposely to give us a clue of some kind?  Jesus' shed blood was shed upon the place called "The Skull" so that our own individual/personal skull/head/mind could be cleansed, so that our heavenly Father and his firstborn son, Christ Jesus, could both move in and home-down


The place called "The Skull", the place of death where the devil, Satan, murdered Jesus, God's only-begotten son at that time (before the day of Pentecost), Jesus being his firstborn son, that place is now an antitype to you, all who have believed and still do believe upon the precious name of  Jesus, Jesus Christ whom the Father stood up out of dead ones, and who shall stand you up also!


If it is now, and has been, the God's prophetic desire to home-down in his creation of mankind, they being his holy place, then I suppose that this has always been his desire.  I suppose that at least this purpose, and perhaps others, is the reason in the beginning for the creation and existence of mankind!  I believe this is why Adam and Eve were formed, made and created in the beginning of the present genesis/origination, to be his holy place in which to home-down.  I believe the God intended to home down in them, and to home down in all of their posterity collectively, as his holy place, until the time of their sin.  I believe this is the reason the devil accosted Eve, to steal mankind for himself as his own homing-down place, which he did (Eph. 2:1-3)!  


Mortals in ancient times, as now, loved the uppermost rooms and seats as their occupancy, which supposedly indicated their higher social status above others.   In Mat. 23:1-7 Jesus speaks of the so-called "first citizens", the scribes and the Pharisees who considered themselves as higher class citizens than others.  See also Mark 12:38-40; Luke 11:39-54.  Although the world treats those who believe upon the name of Jesus as morons (1 Cor. 1:23-31), and the lowest of citizens (John 15:17-25), God our heavenly Father is making believers into a domed-roof house in the heavens (2 Cor. 5:1).  This is no simple lean-to made of rubbish alongside the railroad tracks, but a top of the line, first class Spirit-based house, one as high up as high can get! 


We don't boast this of ourselves, that we have made our own place to stay above others, but God has made us into his true "tent", the one he has made with his own "hand".  And we can boast about what God has made us to become in Christ Jesus, which boasting glorifies God.  Though we are workers together with God (2 Cor. 6:1), the domed-roof house, which is the one body of Christ, the prophetic holy place desired of God, is made without hands (2 Cor. 5:1).  It is God, through his grace, who has chosen to home-down in those who believe his Word. 


More to come about this great truth!   See pegged - 4078.



472 - to hold alongside (antechō, verb) - To stick with something, to be in agreement with it, to have confidence in it, to hold to it and stand by it.  In the contexts of the usages of this word the ante prefix appears to have a meaning more like para, meaning alongside.  Therefore to hold alongside seems preferable over to hold opposite, which can be easily taken to mean opposition instead of accompaniment.



473 - instead, against, opposite, across from, (anti, preposition) - Anti, based upon evidence in the biblical Greek texts, when used as a stand-a-lone word it appears to have several contextually influenced meanings as used by the biblical writers.


1. Anti is used with a sense of meaning being instead of, or in place of something else, which is the meaning of the majority of its uses by the biblical writers (Mat. 2:22, 5:38, 17:27, 20:28; Mark 10:45; Luke 11:11; 1 Cor. 11:15; Eph. 5:31; Heb. 12:2, 16; James 4:15).


2. Anti is used to refer to a person, place or thing which stands in opposition to, contrary to, against the values and beliefs of someone or something else (Rom. 12:16-17; 1 Thes. 5:15; 2 Thes. 2:10; 1 Pet. 3:9).


3a. Anti is used sometimes to mean across from, or face to face. 


In Rom. 1:27, where the preposition anti is prefixed to the noun misthos, meaning a reward or a wage, a good English translation would be anti-wage.  A wage earned from a hard days work is justified, and is an expected compensation to a worker, which compensation is beneficial to a worker.  Payment of an anti-wage by God is justified according his righteous law, but it may or may not be expected to be received by a worker.  As anti indicates in its second kind of usages, the wage itself is the opposite of a beneficial wage, and is a detrimental wage.  Although an anti-wage is received by a recipient, anti indicates its net effect on the recipient is just the opposite of being beneficial to the recipient, which effect is detrimental.  The net effect of receiving an anti-wage is to receive a harsh penalty.  Exactly what the anti-wage penalty is in Rom. 1:27 isn't described.


3b. Anti is used to point out a spatial relationship; to something being directly across from, or juxtaposed with, or face to face with, and very close in proximity to something else (John 1:16; Mat. 5:38; Luke 12:3).


4. Anti prefixed to nouns points out the undesirability of the meaning of the noun, in contrast to its meaning as being normally desirable (Rom. 1:27).



478 - to stand down opposite (antikathistēmi, verb) - While speaking, or preaching, or teaching, or practicing God's Word, and then confronted with opposition against God's Word, a disciple is to stand for, and to keep on standing for God's Word, agonizing toward the sin of those who are opposed to the experiential knowledge of the truth of God's Word.  In Heb. 12, 12:4, this is the writer's issue in his argument with his fellow Judeans, with those who are refusing to spiritually grow up, to stand up into their own personal discipleship to Christ Jesus.



496 - fall in opposition (antipiptete, verb) - To find one's self on the opposing side in a conflict.  In Acts 7:51 Stephen said the children of Israel are always doing the opposite of what God desires them to do; as the fathers of them always opposed God, they do also (Acts 6:8 - Acts 8:2).



499 - opposite types (antitupos, adj.) - Both apostles Paul and Peter use this idiom once each, of its only two occurrences in the new covenant writings.


First see 5179, tupos, for what is a type in holy scripture, and how they are used by the ancient writers.


Heb. 9:24 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) absolutely not (ou) into (eis) hands-made (cheiropoiēta) holy places (hagia) <did> Christ (Christos) enter in (eisēlthen), [hands-made holy places, RE] [being] opposite types499 (antitupa) of the (tōn) true ones (alēthinōn), BUT (all’), into (eis) the (ton) heaven (ouranon) itself (auton), now (nun) to be manifested in (emphanisthēnai) the (tō) face (prosōpō) of the (tou) God (theou), over (huper) [the sake, AE] of us (hēmōn)! 


The scriptural holy places made with human hands, the Exodus tabernacle in the wilderness, and the temples in Jerusalem, were opposite types of the true holy place, his "tent" where the God desires to home down (Acts 7:47-50; 17:24; Heb. 8:2). 


See my study titled, "God's Desired True "Tent", His "Domed-roof House".



506 - insubordinate ones (anupotaktoi, adj.) - Used four times in the text, in 1 Tim. 1:9; Titus 1:6, 1:10; Heb. 2:8.  Those who will not put themselves under submission to God the heavenly Father, his son Jesus Christ, or any holy mortals of God.  Ones who will not disciple themselves to God's Word.  They are lawless, thought-deceivers, false believers, and liars.  They will not allow themselves to be subordinate to any agenda other than their own, and therefore they are entirely unreliable and untrustworthy.  Their description within the text fulfills the criteria for them to be wolves in sheep's clothing.



561 - opposite from (apenanti, prep.) - Apenanti is used six times in the Greek texts.  Five of those usages are references to proximity, meaning opposite from, or across from, but very nearby in proximity.  One usage is in the sense of opposition, to be contrary (Acts 17:7).  In its five proximity references it is used as a reference to something being very close to another, as if both are facing one another


In Acts 3:16 the lame mortal was opposite from the rest of the people of Israel.  It's an idiomatic way of stating that he was right in front of their faces, right across from them, when he was healed through his belief upon the name of Jesus.   The miracle of healing occurred before their very eyes!  The belief of the lame mortal served to magnify the unbelief of all those around him, who were supposedly already "whole".  But they were absolutely not "whole" according Jesus' and his apostle's spiritual definition of "wholeness", because they still had unbelief in their hearts over who was Jesus, the promised coming redeemer.  BELIEF in their hearts upon the name of Jesus was the main thing they were all missing. 


Although apenanti is used in Acts 3:16 in reference to physical proximity, Peter's usage of it is stated in such a way as to mean that the one who was healed is not only physically opposite in proximity to the others present, but the belief in his heart over the name of Jesus is opposite of, or contrary to, the lack of belief in the hearts of all of the others present.   The lame mortal's belief which caused him to become a whole being, whole in body, whole in soul, and whole in Spirit, was contrary or opposite (anti) to the unbelief of all of the others present.  Their unbelief caused them to remain soul-based mortals, as apostle Paul characterizes those who have not yet received God's gift of holy Spirit (1 Cor. 2:14), the new birth above in God's Spirit. 


This record in Acts 3, as well as many others, shows clearly that it is God's desire for one who has a physical infirmity to receive physical healing simultaneously at the same time they receive the new birth above in God's gift of his holy Spirit.  I believe another scenario also is possible, that this one who was lame may have already believed upon the name of Jesus prior to this day in which he received healing from his lameness, and he may have already received the new birth above in God's gift of his holy Spirit at that time.  And that it took until this day, when the apostles noticed him sitting at the gate and approached him and spoke to him, for it to click in his mind that his prayer could be answered on account of God's Spirit already homing-down within him, that he was already eligible to receive physical healing, to receive God's Spirit in him energizing itself in him in the form of healing his physical body. 


Healing is one of the nine manifestations which apostle Paul taught that believers, in the name of Jesus, could and should manifest in their lives (1 Cor. 12).  If the Spirit, the one Spirit of God (John 4:24; 1 Cor. 6:17, 12:13; Eph. 2:18, 4:4; Phil. 1:27) which Christ has given to us (Mat. 3:11), hence, Spirit of/from Christ, is actually in us because we are truly believing upon the name of Jesus, then we ought to be able to prove that to ourselves (2 Cor. 13:1-5; Gal. 6:4; 1 Thes. 5:21)!  And if we can't yet prove it to ourselves, that God's Spirit dwells within us, then we are to get busy renewing our minds (Rom. 12:2) to the knowledge of God's Word, which precious knowledge builds our belief in our hearts to a greater level (Rom. 10:14-17), to enable us to receive more and more of God's great and precious new covenant promises coming to pass in our lives (2 Pet. 1:1-8)!



583 - to be registered (apographō, verb) - See 2778 - a census (kēnsos, noun).



598 - they crowd off (apothlibō, verb) - Used in Luke 8:45, an colloquialism very similar to our English, "to crowd in".  The dense crowd around Jesus stopped or cut off others from getting to Jesus.  The woman with the issue of blood had to force and push her way through the dense crowd to get close enough to Jesus to reach out and touch his clothing.    



599 - die away (apothnēskō, verb) - See 662 - dares away.



605 - of standing down (apokatastasis, noun) - An idiom familiar in Western English as a modern military term meaning to cease and desist from aggression, to no longer be active and affective, as when soldiers are ordered by their commanders to stand down from active fighting


Dr. Bullinger defines the word as meaning a "re-establishment from a state of ruin."  However, I believe the word's meaning has a little different shade of meaning, given the old covenant prophecies to which it relates (Acts 3:22-28; Deut. 18:15-19; Acts 4:18, 21, 25-27), and in consideration of apostle Paul's revelations (1 Cor. 1:28; 1 Cor. 2:6; 1 Cor. 15:24-28; 2 Thes. 2:8; Heb. 2:8, 14). 


I believe apostle Peter's usage of apokatastasis refers to the things in this world which are causing its ruin, as coming or being brought to a halt forcefully, i.e., their standing down, ultimately they being forced to stand down.  In Acts 3:21, and through chapters 3 and 4, I believe apostle Peter's references are to principalities, powers, and people in this world, like the children of Israel who had the Romans murder Christ Jesus for them, who fight against God.  Peter's usage of apokatastasis is in reference to bringing an end to the ruin, the stealing, killing and destroying (John 10:9) going on upon the earth; to the eventual forcing of it to stand down, which is a necessary step which must come before the establishment of the new heavens and earth. 


Many, perhaps most of the Judeans to whom apostle Peter preached on the day of Pentecost, Israel corporately, were still fighting against God and were not standing down.  They weren't accepting God's Word about the coming messiah, and they didn't recognize and accept Jesus as that messiah/Christ.  They had him murdered.   Apostle Peter is practically begging them, while warning them at the same time, to stand down from fighting against God.  The children of Israel have the same opportunity as any other people, powers, or authorities upon the face of the earth; either stand down and turn to God and his son Jesus Christ, or become put under his feet, which will not be a good thing.



653 - to mouth away at (apostomatizō, verb) - Used in Luke 11:53, this figure looks very similar to our modern colloquialism to mouth off about someone. As you know, the religious leaders eventually succeeded in killing Jesus. Up until that time he kept on exposing their falsehoods and meaningless religious practices, and they were constantly spewing out of their mouths lies and insults about him, privately and publicly. There was no discretion used by either Jesus Christ or the false religious leaders. Jesus Christ didn't consider himself not speaking the Truth of God's Word as being optionally discretionary. Likewise, apostle Paul speaks throughout his letters as he having boldness to speak, as he encourages us to speak boldly as well, following Jesus' example here. I believe Jesus understood that through engaging the religious leaders in their falsehood that he was beginning the process which would culminate in his own shed blood and death to pay for the sins of all mortalkind, thereby allowing all those who believe upon the name of Jesus to receive a new birth above, a baptism in God's gift of his paternal holy Spirit. The children of the devil (John 8:44) took the bait.



662 - dares away (apotolmaō, verb) - Another 'away' idiom.  In Rom. 10:20 apostle Paul, referencing a quote of Isaiah, says, "But Isaiah dares away and says...", apparently to be understood in the sense that Isaiah dared to provoke the anger of the Israelite leadership with his prophecy alluding to Israel's rejection of God, and God's subsequent move to make his son Jesus Christ known to other ethnic groups, to give them the opportunity to believe upon the name of Jesus.  There are many 'away' idioms used in the Greek texts, which are used very similarly if not identically to the way we use them to this day in our Western English language culture.  Some of the Koiné Greek 'away' idioms are: apagō, brought away; apechō, hold away; apodēmeō, going or went away; apodidōmi, give away; apothnēskō, die away; apokrinomai, was caused to make a decision; apokekruptō, hid away; apologeomai, explain away; apolouō, bathe away; apoluō, send away; aponizō, washed away; apopiptō, fell away; apoplanaō, wandered away; and many more. 


The Greek 'away' idioms appear to be dynamically and freely constructed at will by the one speaking by simply taking the preposition apo and prefixing it to a verb as desired.  In our Western English culture also it is acceptable to take almost any verb and combine it with the word 'away' into a verb phrase, such as the following which are commonly used in our own culture: bang away; blow away; break away; carry away; cart away; cast away; clear away; die away; draw away; eat away; explain away; fade away; fall away; fire away; fritter away; get away; give away; go away; hammer away; lay away; pass away; plug away; put away; run away; send away; shy away; slip away; sock away; spirit away; square away; squirrel away; stow away; take away; tear away; throw away; tuck away; turn away; walk away; waste away; wear away; whale away; while away; and many more.



743 - first messenger (archangelos, noun) - First in rank.  The Word is no longer first in rank among the messengers (John 1:1; Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:1-4) since he has been promoted to the position of being the Christ, Jesus (Mat. 10:40, 15:24; Luke 1:25-37; John 3:17; 1 John 4:14; Acts 2:33, 5:31; Phil. 2:9), and has been made a son of the God (Mat. 2:15, 3:17, 16:16, 17:5; Rom. 1:4), the first one.  The messenger first in rank now is Michael (Jude 1:9).



746 - a beginning, beginning one, chief one (archē, noun) -  In the UBS4 eclectic text there are approximately 58 usages of this word, which sometimes means simply beginning, a beginning, its general root meaning.  But sometimes it is used in the sense of chief ones, those who are attributed a higher social status of importance, various governmental and religious leaders. The contexts of the occurrences of archē give it various meanings, as listed below.


From an examination of all 58 usages of archē in the UBS4 text it appears to be used in reference to at least 16 various kinds of beginnings.


1.  Archē used in reference to [the] beginning, which most believers believe was the last beginning which occurred, in which the present heavens and earth which now exist were created: Mat. 19:4, 8, 24:21; Mark 10:6, 13:19; John 1:1-2, 8:44; 2 Pet. 3:4; 1 John 1:1, 3:8; 2 John 1:5.


2.  Archē used as [a/the] beginning of pains: Mat. 24:8; Mark 13:8.


3.  Archē used as [the] beginning of the evangelism of Jesus Christ, a son of God: Mark 1:1; John 6:64, 15:27, 16:4; Heb. 2:3.


4.  Archē used in reference to the God as the Alpha one and the Omega one, the beginning one and the completing one: Rev. 1:8, 21:6, 22:13.


5.  Archē used in reference to chief ones, people in positions of power and authority, and angels/messengers which have since become demon spirits (Jude 1:4-11), ones who are now living in and possessing mortal beings to influence them to do evil, as they lived in and possessed the religious leaders of Israel in the time of Jesus Christ's earthly ministry (John 8:44): Luke 12:11, 20:20; Rom. 8:38; 1 Cor. 15:24; Eph. 1:21, 3:10, 6:12; Col. 1:16, 15; 2:10; Tit. 3:1; Heb. 1:10; Jude 1:6.


6.  Archē used in reference to [the] beginning of Jesus' signs which he did in Cana of Galilee: John 2:11.


7.  Archē used in reference to Jesus Christ as [a/the] beginning one, and to other beginning ones, angels/messengers which the God produced in the beginning subsequent to Jesus Christ's production in the beginning as [the] first (pro) of all things created (Col. 1:17).


8.  Archē used in reference to the beginning of the outpouring of the gift of holy Spirit from Jesus Christ on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2), which began the gathering of the ekklesia, the called out ones, the one body of Christ: Acts 11:15.


9.  Archē used in reference to first ones of Asia who believed Paul's preaching, who became friends of him and accosted him not to put himself in danger of the workers who made money over all of the hoopla around the worship of the Ephesian goddess Artemis, Acts 19:2.


10.  Archē used in reference to a point in time early in the beginning of the life of Saul (apostle Paul): Acts 26:4.


11.  Archē used in reference to the beginning of apostle Paul's evangelism of the name of Jesus Christ: Phil. 4:15.


12.  Archē used in reference to Thessalonian believers who received God's beginning offering to them of wholeness, the gift of his holy Spirit, on account of their belief of the Truth, 2 Thes. 2:13.


13.  Archē used in reference to the beginning of believer's understanding of God's Word about his firstborn son Jesus Christ, and of our heavenly Father's salvation of us through his son, Jesus Christ: Luke 1:2; Heb. 3:14; 1 John 2:7, 13-14, 24, 3:11; 2 John 1:6.


14.  Archē used in reference to the elements of the beginning of the utterances of the God of our wholeness through his son, Jesus Christ: Heb. 5:12.


15.  Archē used in reference to a beginning of days from a physical birth: Heb. 7:3.


16.  Archē used in reference to what God's Word says about the beginning of the Christ.  That Word may be referring to the Christ starting all the way back to when the Christ was the Word, [the] firstborn (prōtotokos) [son, v13, RE] of all of creation (Col. 1:15).



758 - chief ones (archontōn, noun) - In the biblical texts the biblical writers used the terms chief one and chief ones to refer not only to chief ones among mortals, and to chief ones among demon spirits, i.e., chief ones of this age, but to chief ones among the one body of Christ also.  Generically, a chief one is one in a higher rank in authority and power than others. 


In 1 Cor. 2:6, 8 apostle Paul wrote about chief ones of this age, chief ones among people which chief ones have not been put in place according to God's arrangements, but according to worldly arrangements, devilish arrangements.  In Mat. 9:18 chief one (archōn heis) is used.  In Mat. 9:34 and 12:24 the Pharisees and the writers said that Jesus casts out demons because he was in (Gk. en) to the chief one (Gk. archonti) of the demons, which is Satan. 


In the UBS4 biblical Greek texts, and therefore the LIT, the words chief one and chief ones refer most often to people in positions of leadership and authority, which leadership and authority is worldly, and not on account of any arrangements the God has made for his household, his domed-roof house, the one body of Christ.  But in Rom. 13:3, a closely related context about leadership in the one body of Christ, the term chief ones is used to refer to those within the one body which Christ Jesus has set in place to be leaders.  These are the true leaders, authorities and chief ones for which God has made arrangements for their functions, according to his new covenant plan, who are apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers (Eph. 1-13). 


This well-used biblical Greek colloquialism has come down through the ages to us today, in various forms.  It is nearly identical to our modern Western idiom first citizen.  The US president's wife is referred to as the First Lady.   On a merchant ship the officer in rank immediately below the captain is the first officer.  We have another closely related idiom, first and foremost.  Another modern Western idiom very closely related to this is one in which we use the cardinal numeral one, as in Air Force One; which means of all of the airplanes in the United States, in civilian, commercial, and/or governmental use, the presidents airplane ranks the highest in importance. 



832 - we piped (auleō, verb) - In Mat. 11:17, of Jesus speaking to the crowds and to his disciples, he presents an analogy to the present generation of the children of Israel, to compare them to children playing in the marketplace. Jesus' analogy is belittling of them to say the least, and is a great example of the figure of speech Meiosis, a belittling of one thing to magnify another. Jesus refers to the present generation of the racist, bigoted, and scripturally ignorant children of Israel as children playing. The children are playing at celebrating something through piping and dancing, and the children are playing at mourning something through singing a funeral dirge and beating their chests.  But they are not really celebrating anything, and they are not really mourning anything, but only like children playing at celebrating and morning, not knowledgeable of having anything really worth celebrating or mourning! 


The present generation of the children of Israel during Jesus' earthly ministry didn't have a clue to celebrate the arrival, finally, of their own promised and long awaited coming redeemer (Gen. 3:15).  And the present generation of the children of Israel at that time really don't have a clue as to why they should be mourning the loss of their own promised redeemer, who they were presently rejecting; which subsequent rejection led to their own loss of eternal life!  The present generation of the children of Israel were so racist, bigoted, and ignorant of the knowledge of God's Word that they had no clue to either celebrate the coming of their promised redeemer, nor mourn the loss of their own promised redeemer, and subsequently mourn the loss of their own eternal life along with it!  They should have been celebrating his coming, and along with it their own wholeness and deliverance from their bondage to sin and death!  But  they were only like children playing in the marketplace, unseeing, unhearing, and uncaring, being oblivious to what was really going on around them! (Rom. 10:16 - 11:12; 2 Cor. 4:3-6)


See also:


2354 - a dirge (thrēneō, verb)

2870 - beating of the breast (kopetos, noun)

2875 - you did beat, shall beat themselves, were beating themselves (koptō, verb)

5180 - to beat (tuptō, verb)



906 - to throw (ballō, verb; metaballō, verb, 3328) - In Acts 28:6 those who were watching apostle Paul after he was bitten by a poisonous snake, observed nothing atypical became of the bite to him.  This threw them in their minds, and caused them to change from considering him to be a murderer to considering him to be a god, or god-like.  In English we use the same idiom when we say, "it threw me", or, "it threw me for a loop", or, "it threw me off", referring to when a calamitous surprise comes our way, or a surprising and/or unexpected mental realization about which we immediately lack full comprehension.  Matthew records this apparent common idiom as well (Mat. 8:6, 14, 9:2).



932 - The Kingdom of Heaven/God (basileia, noun) - The Kingdom of Heaven/God, spoke about by Jesus Christ and his apostles, is absolutely not a geographic location some place either now or in the future.  According to Jesus Christ the Kingdom of Heaven/God is not a place or location which is "here" (Gk. hōde) or "there" (Gk. ekei) (Luke 17:21).  Jesus Christ made it perfectly clear where the Kingdom of Heaven/God is, which is "within you".


Please see my study God's Desired True "Tent", his "Domed-roof House"! for a comprehensive presentation of God's prophesied true temple, his desired true "tent" which he has always desired to make his permanent dwelling place.  This explains his prophesied new covenant, only under which his new "tent" could become possible.


Luke 17:20 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) he having received an inquiry (eperōtētheis) under (hupo) [authority, AE] of the (tōn) Pharisees (pharisaiōn), when (pote) the (hē) Kingdom932 (basileia) of the (tou) God (theou) is caused to come (erchetai), he was caused to make [a] decision (apekrithē) for them (autois), and (kai) he enunciated (eipen), “The (hē) Kingdom932 (basileia) of the (tou) God (theou) is absolutely not caused to come (ouk erchetai) with (meta) careful watching alongside (paratērēseōs)!


Luke 17:21 (LIT/UBS4) But they shall absolutely not state (oude erousin), ‘Behold (idou), here (hōde)!’ or (ē), ‘Behold (idou), there (ekei)!’


Because (gar) behold (idou), the (hē) Kingdom932 (basileia) of the (tou) God (theou) is (estin) within (entos) you (humōn)!” 


Now the question is when did the Kingdom of Heaven/God start to become within people?


The Kingdom of Heaven/God, according to what the apostles of Christ Jesus wrote in the copies of the Greek texts of the Bible (notice I didn't say in the Bible), began to be evangelized with the coming and preaching of John the Baptist (Luke 16:16). 


Luke 16:16 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) law (nomos) and (kai) the (ho) prophets (prophētai) [were evangelized, RE] until (mechri) John (Iōannou).


From (apo) then (tote) the (hē) Kingdom932 (basileia) of the (tou) God (theou) is evangelized (euangelizetai), and (kai) everyone (pas) forces himself (biazetai) into (eis) her (autēn)!


Many preachers, teachers and scholars assume a scriptural disassociation between the coming of the God's promised new covenant and promised new Kingdom.  This is a huge mistake which is supported through paraphrased Bible "translations" which fudge all of the inflected forms of the verbs in the various scriptural passages where the subject matter of the Kingdom of Heaven/God appear, not to mention the others ways in which the translations are altered from the texts.


From my own reading and study of the copies of the Greek texts (UBS4) of the new testament of the Bible the old Mosaic law covenant, the Law of Works (Rom. 3:27-28), ended on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2), which was the official beginning of the coming to pass of God's promised new covenant, the Law of Belief (Rom. 3:27-28).


So then, on the day of Pentecost what was it that entered into almost 3,000 believers (Acts 2:41) which gave them a new birth above in God's gift of his holy Spirit?  It was God's promised gift of his holy Spirit (Acts 2:14-21; Joel 2:28-32) which entered into them, which brought into them the Kingdom of the Heaven/God!  Where the God is is where he rules, and where he rules is his Kingdom!


A distinction must be made while reading the holy scriptures between the coming into existence of the Kingdom of Heaven/God, and the coming into manifestation of the Kingdom of Heaven/God at some later time (Luke 19:11). 


Another distinction must be made between initially receiving God's gift of his holy Spirit, which is a down payment of all of the benefits/wages available to a believer under God's new covenant, which Spirit gives one an entrance into the Kingdom of the Heaven/God, and receiving the balance due of those benefits/rewards/wages of the Kingdom of Heaven/God, at the return of Christ Jesus for his one body.


In Mat. 8:11-12 Jesus prophesies about those true sons of the kingdom who have great belief in their hearts as the centurion, of the diaspora and other ethnic groups, coming from the risings and sinkings of the sun to sit at tables and eat with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the King of the Heavens.  The false sons of the Kingdom, those who look and act like they may have enough belief to receive an entrance into the Kingdom, those who viciously claim to be the sons of the patriarchs (Mat. 3:7-12; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 3:7-9, 13:22- 30, 19:9 - 27; John 8:30 - 47; Acts 3:12 - 4:4; Gal. 3:5 - 16, 29), will be thrown out into the outer darkness. 



939 - walkers (basis, noun) - A colloquialism for feet, or "steppers".  This colloquialism is similar to ours when we refer to certain dance moves as being "high-stepping".



952 - over the threshold (bebēlos, adj.) - In 1 Tim. 4:7 apostle Paul gives leadership advice to Timothy, advising him on what is proper dialogue and conduct concerning one's piety toward the God the heavenly Father.  Paul uses an idiom describing crossing a subjective boundary, and idiom similar to if not identical with our Western English idiom of crossing the line, describing someone's behavior as being out of bounds with the guidelines given in God's Word.  Timothy was not to engage in or allow dialogue and/or discussion about old women's myths or anything else which crosses the threshold, the line drawn in God's Word of exactly what is expected of one's pious conduct in the Father's sight.



968 - step of the tribune (bēma, noun) - Spiros Zodhiates states:


"béma; gen. bématos, neut. noun from baínō (n.f., see apobaínō <G576>), I go. A step, i.e., a pace or footstep (Acts 7:5; Sept.: Deut. 2:5). By implication any elevated place to which the ascent is by steps, e.g., a stage or pulpit for a speaker or reader (Sept.: Neh. 8:4). An elevated seat like a throne in the theater at Caesarea on which Herod sat (Acts 12:21). More commonly it means a tribunal, especially of a judge or magistrate (Matt. 27:19; John 19:13; Acts 18:12, 16, 17; 25:6, 10, 17; Rom. 14:10; 2 Cor. 5:10)". (Zodhiates, Spiros. "AMG's Complete Word Study Dictionaries" - "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament." AMG International, Inc. (1992))


In John 19:13, the step of the tribune upon which Pilate sat to address the people who came to speak against and condemn Jesus, was called the place of the "Mosaic", which in Hebrew is called "Gabbatha".  George Lamsa states:


"The word Gabbatha is an Aramaic compound noun.  Gab means side, betha or batha means, house.  Nearly every oriental house has a place at its entrance where people sit down.  It is about four feet high and three feet wide and constructed of large stones.  This is where Eli was seated when he fell down on receiving the bad news about the capture of the Ark. (1 Sam. 4:18)  This is where political and religious matters are discussed and important judgments pronounced.  On important occasions gatherings of people are addressed from this place, by speakers who sit on the gab-batha as a platform.  At the homes of the rich and government officials this place is also used as a resting place by servants and soldiers.


This was the last appearance of Pilate in defense of Jesus.  The Jews usually entered the palace and the judgment hall, but on this occasion the crowd had increased and became excited, and there was danger of tumult and violence.  The governor had already been accused of being lenient towards the man whom the high priests had condemned.  It would have been unsafe for Pilate and his household to allow the frenzied mob to enter the palace.  He therefore came out and used the gab-batha as a platform to address the large crowd which had gathered and to make his final appeal to them." (Lamsa, George. Gospel Light. Philadelphia: A. J. Holman, 1936)


In 2 Cor. 5:10 apostle Paul teaches the assembly (ekklēsia) of God in the area of Corinth that it is necessary for the things of all of us to be manifested in front of the step of the tribune of the Christ.


2 Cor. 5:10 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) it is required (dei) of the things (tous) of all (pantas) of us (hēmas) to be manifested (phanerōthēnai) in front (emprosthen) of the (tou) step of the tribune968 (bēmatos) of the (tou) Christ (Christou);


in order that (hina) each one (hekastos) may provide for himself (komisētai) the things (ta) for (pros) which (ha) he habitually practiced (epraxen) through (dia) the (tou) body (sōmatos), whether (eite) [things habitually practiced, RE] goodly (agathon), [or] whether (eite) [things habitually practiced, RE] worthlessly (phaulon).


In Rom. 14:10, in the context, apostle Paul is correcting certain believers in the area of Rome for judging one another over things eaten, or of certain days having been given special meanings according to local customs.  Paul says a day is coming in which we shall all cause ourselves to stand alongside the step of the tribune of the God, to speak to him about our own conduct. So why put out or judge the brother of us now in these matters, which causes divisions and tears down the one body of Christ rather than build it up which is the ministry to which we've been called, and as we are commanded to do?


Rom. 14:10 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) you (su), why (ti) judge (krineis) the (ton) brother (adelphon) of you (sou)?


Or (ē), you (su) also (kai), why (ti) reject as absolutely nothing (exoutheneis) the (ton) brother (adelphon) of you (sou)?


Because (gar) we all shall cause ourselves to stand alongside (pantes parastēsometha) the (tō) step of the tribune968 (bēmati) of the (tou) God (theou);


Taken together, 2 Cor. 5:10 and Rom. 14:10 appear to state that the assembly, the one body of Christ, shall attend two separate and distinct judgments; a judgment at the step of the tribune of Christ, and a subsequent judgment at the step of the tribune of God.



1085 - genus (genos, noun) - Apparently genus was used to refer to people of a different nation and/or race (Mark 7:26; Acts 4:6; Acts 4:36; Acts 7:13; Acts 7:19; Acts 13:26; Acts 18:2; Acts 18:24; 1 Cor. 12:10; 1 Cor. 12:28; Rev. 22:16); and to the genus of God (Acts 17:28-29); and to various genus of demon spirits (Mat. 17:21; Mark 9:29; ); and to various genus of sounds in the cosmos (1 Cor. 14:10); and to a chosen genus, a kingly priesthood, a holy ethnic people (1 Pet. 2:9), which may be another perspective reference to the genus of God.



1090 - landscaped (geōrgeō, verb) - In Heb. 6:7 landscaped apparently had a much broader meaning than that which we in Western English ascribe to it today.  In our culture its modern meaning is to redesign the looks of the the landscape around buildings in cities for primarily building, drainage and aesthetic reasons.  But contextually, especially because of the biblical writer's use of the term botanēn, commonly used referring to botany in general, specifically produced through landscaping (geōrgeō) the land, appears to mean to produce crops to feed both people and animals.



1101 - tongue purse (glōssokomon, noun) - Occurs in John 12:6 and 13:29. This refers to a bag, and/or a purse, and/or a box in which reeds and/or mouth pieces were stored for wind instruments.



1116 - Gomorrahs - See 4670 - Sodoms.



1119 - knees (gonu, noun) - In most occurrences of the use of this noun it is used in reference to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another.  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings/introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to this custom. For a comprehensive explanation of this custom and verse references see section 4352 here in the LITG.



1120 - falling upon the knees (gonupeteō, verb) - This is another reference to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another.  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings/introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to this custom. For a comprehensive explanation of this custom and verse references see section 4352 here in the LITG.



1137 - head of an angle (gōnias, noun) - A geometrical (geometry) reference used as a metaphorical "formula" for the "calculation" of Truth, God's Word, instead of a geophysical location such as a corner somewhere.  The God's promised redeemer, Jesus Christ, is the standard of, and the formula for, the assurance of Truth, no matter what others may "calculate" him to be.  For a "stone" becoming a head of an angle - a "geometric" starting point prophesied in the old testament books of the Law, Psalms and prophets, in which Jesus was prophesied through using examples of geometric terminology, see Psalm 118:22-23; Mat. 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:1-11; Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:4-7.  See 204 - an angle tip (akrogōniaios, adj.) also.



1147 - finger (daktulos, common noun) - In Mat. 23:4 Christ Jesus mentions the writers and the Pharisees who bundle weighty loads, and things difficult to carry, and they put them upon the shoulders of the mortal's to carry, while they themselves will not use a finger to move them.  This is very similar, if not identical, to our modern western idiom of not lifting a finger to help.  In Luke 11:46 Jesus addresses the lawyers as well for doing the same thing to people.  I believe the "loads" Jesus spoke of were mental and physical burdens manufactured out of ego-maniacal mortal-made religion, mortal-made theological theories and fairy tales which resulted in bondage, bondage based upon lies and deceit of mortal-made wisdom of the world.



1189 - beg, I cause myself to beg (deomai, verb) - Deomai is used not only literally, but as an idiom, having an intensified meaning as the meaning of the word ask.  It is used colloquially in Acts 8:34, by the eunuch who was over all the royal treasure of Egypt.  When the eunuch said to Philip, "I beg of you [to know] the..." the use of the idiom indicates the intense seriousness on the part of the eunuch to come to know what was the meaning of what the prophet Isaiah said.  In English we have a similar idiom, "I beg of you...", which can possibly be interpreted as actually begging out of desperation.  When wealthy people use the idiom its use is more of a colloquialism.  When poor people use the idiom, you may do well to take them more seriously.  In contrast to all of the wealth of Egypt, the value of the knowledge of God's Word caught the eye of the eunuch.



1194 - to skin (derō, verb) - Based upon evidence of the holy scriptures this is an idiom meaning to submit someone to severe verbal and/or physical abuse.   The ancient writers used it in reference to both rough interrogation and bodily punishment, as Jesus himself used it.  This idiom is very similar, if not identical, to our modern idiom "to skin someone alive", which means to administer severe punishment of some kind. What is the specific kind of punishment is often not mentioned in the contexts in which derō or its inflected forms occur.


In the first usage of derō in the gospel records, in Jesus' parable of the vineyard in Mat. 21:34-35, Jesus said:


Mat. 21:34 (LIT/UBS4)  But (de) when (hote) the (ho) time (kairos) of the (tōn) produce (karpōn) came near (ēngisen), he sent (apesteilen) the (tous) slaves (doulous) of him (autou) to (pros) the (tous) land workers (geōrgous) to receive (labein) the (tous) produce (karpous) of it (autou).


Mat. 21:35 (LIT/UBS4)  And (kai) the (hoi) land workers (geōrgoi) having taken (labontes) the (tous) slaves (doulous) of him (autou), truly (men), they skinned1194 (edeiran) the one (hon);


but (de) they killed (apekteinan) the one (hon);


but (de) they threw stones at (elithobolēsan) the one (hon)!


Jesus mentions three slaves.  About the slave which the false land workers skinned, Jesus could have meant that they literally skinned him.  But to me that seems doubtful given other scriptural evidence.  It seems more likely that the slave escaped with only some kind of harsh treatment or Jesus would have mentioned him as being killed or stoned like the others.  In the parallel record in Mark's writing (Mark 12:1-11), in verse 3, the false land workers sent the slave away alive after they "skinned" and robbed him.


In John 18:19-23, apostle John witnesses of Jesus being "skinned" by the under-oarsman of the chief sacrificial priest, verses 22-23.  The under-oarsman beat Jesus with a rod when Jesus answered the chief sacrificial priest with the truth, which the priest didn't like.


In 2 Cor. 11:20 apostle Paul adds a little more detail to the definition of being "skinned", as being struck in the face.


See also, Mark 12:5, 13:9; Luke 12:47-48, 20:10-11, 22:63; John 18:23; Acts 5:40, 16:37, 22:19; 1 Cor. 9:26.



1252 - judge thoroughly (diakrinō, verb) - This colloquialism is first used in Mat. 16:3 by Jesus in response to the Pharisees and Sadducees who came to him to ask him to show them a sign from heaven.  They could judge thoroughly, i.e., discern the meaning of the changing conditions of the sky to conclude what kind of weather was coming next, but they couldn't understand the prophecies in God's Word to know what events were prophesied to occur next; they didn't know that the son of God was to arrive, and what prophesies he was to fulfill. 


In Rom. 4:20 it is used of Abraam who didn't judge so thoroughly as to start coming up with excuses why God's Word and promise wasn't true.  Here the idiom implies a process of internal mental rationalization within the boundaries of one's own limited knowledge and understanding, to verify to one's self the veracity of God's promise, which power and knowledge of that power is completely outside of the one's knowledge and understanding.  Abraam realized this, and rather than embark on a useless mental process to fathom God's immense power and ability, which he couldn't, he chose simply to believe God's Word based upon his experience receiving the promise. 


In 1 Cor. 11:29-31 what we can judge thoroughly is the correspondence between our own spiritual walk with the knowledge of Jesus broken body and shed blood, and how we should be walking with this knowledge according to God's Word.  The general lesson in God's Word for us concerning this colloquialism is to not let our own lack of knowledge and understanding cause us to doubt.  We don't know it all, but God's Word gives us enough to believe that he shall be our sufficiency in all things.  However, Rom. 10:17 does seem to imply that unless we actively build our own belief in our own mind through building the knowledge of God's Word in our mind, our only default alternative is lack of belief in God's Word.  Therefore, according to apostle Paul, ignorance is not bliss.



1260 - dialoguing (dialogismos, verb) - Means discussing or communicating.  In the UBS 4th Edition it is used 15 times, given the emendation for the one usage in John 11:50.  The verb is used 7 times to refer to people talking to themselves in their own hearts (Mark 2:6, 2:8 (2); Luke 1:29, 3:15, 5:22, 12:17).



1282 - they were being sawed through - (diapriō, verb) - Luke uses this idiom in Acts 7:54, in his account of Stephen's witness (Acts 7:2-53 ) to a Sanhedrin, after Stephen was falsely charged with charges of blaspheming Moses and God (Acts 6:11), and the holy place and the law (Acts 6:13).  Certain ones of the of the Libertines, and Cyrenians, and Alexandrians, and of Cilicia and Asia, disputed with Stephen.  But they were not strong enough to defend and justify their own positions, and to stand opposed to the wisdom and Spirit with which Stephen was speaking (Acts 6:10).  And so they found some who would lie against Stephen so they could engage a Sanhedrin to help them destroy Stephen.  But during Stephen's witness to the Sanhedrin, Luke describes it as being so powerful that the chief sacrificial priests were being sawed through, i.e., Stephen was sawing them in two like a buzz saw with his wisdom of God's Word, and the Spirit of God working in and through him as God's agent.  They stoned to death Stephen for speaking the Truth about the God and his son Christ Jesus.  Stephen brought them up to speed in his witness to them of perhaps the greatest truth in all of God's Word, the ancient prophecies of, and the coming to pass of the raising up of God's true domicile, a "tent" not made with human hands, but one which God' built with his own hand, the raised up "tent" of David, the prophesied domed-roof house of God, the one body of Christ (Acts 7:44-50)!  This is the truth in God's Word which the devil hates the most, because it is the bullseye of the truth of how any and all believers can defeat the devil and any and all of his little demon spirits, with the gift of God's holy Spirit dwelling in those believers!


In Acts 5:33, after Peter and the other apostle's miraculous release from prison, they were found in the temple preaching as the messenger had commanded them.  Again Peter and the apostles were arrested, and this time brought before the council of seventy and the chief priest.  When the chief priest implied that the responsibility for Jesus' shed blood was not upon he and the council (Acts 5:28), Peter spoke words of Truth, God's Word, which sawed them through.  Apostle Peter, with the knowledge of God's Word and God's gift of holy Spirit working in and through him, he cut them in two, he sawed through, indicting them for Jesus' murder (Acts 5:30), and indicting them for hindering the spread of the knowledge of the outpouring of the gift of holy Spirit, "which the God gave to the ones being ruled by persuasion to him."   Peter's statements were like a buzz saw sawing them in two, the chief priest and the entire council of seventy members, putting the blame for both Peter's charges directly upon all of them, where it belonged.


A Spiritual Test


If you would like to test any religious or otherwise person today, as to whether they may be an antichrist and/or have demon spirits working in and through them, from which you can elicit a reaction, just start speaking, preaching and teaching the Truth in God's Word on the subject matter of the new birth above (John 3) in God's gift of his paternal holy Spirit (1 Pet. 1:23; Rom 8), which was first made available and poured out on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2), about the one body of Christ, God's prophesied true "tent", his permanent domicile, and then see who starts to become irritated at you for what you are saying.  Then keep speaking and see how irritated and foamed-up they get.  This is how you'll discover where, and how, and through whom the devil and demon spirits are subtly working. 


If you wish to check in your own denomination, among all the supposed "Christians" you hang with, who among them are wolves in sheep's clothing and who are true brothers and sisters in Christ, start talking about the new birth above in God's Spirit and see who becomes agitated, angry, verbally offensive/abusive, etc..  It works every time.   Don't be surprised if you elicit a reaction from several people simultaneously.  The longer you persist the greater and stronger will become their reaction.  As you persist, slowly more and more demon spirits will come out of hiding and begin to make their presence known to you through their own agitation at the Truth, and especially at the name of Jesus Christ, the new covenant in his shed blood, and the new "tent" of God.  Then you shall absolutely know who you are dealing with, as both Peter and Stephen flushed out the identities of the ones with which they were dealing.  This is called trying or testing the spirits (1 John 4:1).  Those mature believers with God's Spirit working in and through them will stand with you.  The ones who you may have thought may have been born above, when they back down to the pressure, these are the ones Jesus referred to as ones having hearts like "stony places" (Mat. 13:20-21).  They have no "root" in them because they do not have Christ in them (Col. 1:27), who is the "vine" which has the "root" (John 15:4-7).


I have found that there are several large "Christian" organizations on both sides which are purveyors of Pelagianism, the denial of the work of holy Spirit in salvation, which salvation is wholeness through receiving the new birth above in God's gift of his paternal holy Spirit.  These denominations are absolutely fanatical about their doctrine that it is water baptism which saves a person, and not the baptism in the gift of holy Spirit from Christ Jesus, as John the Baptist preached was the coming "baptism" we should look for (Mat. 3:11), and what apostles Peter and Paul preached and taught as well.  Leaders in these denominations turn into verbally abusive antichrists before your very eyes, every time.  They can't keep their composure very long at all, but will become severely mentally and emotionally distressed with you.  They will not simply disagree with you, they will vigorously, verbally attack and abuse you almost immediately, which is absolutely indicative of antichrist demon spirit activity at work within their minds and bodies.  I invite you to do this little test on anyone from any denomination.  When anyone, sometimes almost instantly, comes back at you not with simply mild disagreement, but with an egomaniacal, over-the-top, verbal aggression and abuse, for you speaking, or preaching, or teaching, or BELIEVING that baptism in the gift of holy Spirit from Christ Jesus is the true salvation God sent Christ to make available to us, that'll be your first clue as to who and what you're dealing with.  Remember, Jesus said you'll know them by their "fruit", i.e., the fruit of their lips, the words they speak (Mat. 7:15-23; Heb. 13:15), as to whether they are in agreement with what Jesus and his apostles taught.



1286 - thoroughly shake (diaseisēte, verb) - A colloquialism referring to stealing and/or extorting money and goods from people.  In Luke 3:14 Luke quotes Jesus giving soldiers instructions on how to become more righteous in their own personal conduct.  Jesus used a colloquialism, thoroughly shake, and then an idiom, be fig informers, back-to-back to put emphasis upon the importance of what he was saying to them.  Modern Western English versions of this colloquialism are used today, to shake down, or to shake up someone. 


Given the context of Luke 3:14 where Luke quotes Jesus using this colloquialism, it's more likely a reference to blatant robbery.  It's possibly a reference to shaking down people to steal their money and/or goods, such as or similar to the practice with which we are familiar, the collection of so-called "protection" money.    Jesus enunciating, emphatically instructed the soldiers not to misuse the authority of their positions to threaten people and steal from them.


The popular Aramaic scholar George M. Lamsa, in his work Gospel Light: From Aramaic on the Teachings of Jesus,

gives us a little history of how soldiers are commonly abused:


"Soldiers of old Eastern autocratic governments were looked upon as sons of the kings.  In many respects their authority was higher that that of the civil officials because they were the defenders of the crown and gave their lives for country and ruler.  Soldiers were, therefore, the spoiled children of the king and at times were free to do whatever they pleased.  Their wages, however, were very small and as Eastern governments were generally bankrupt, civil officials paid themselves first and then, if any money remained, a small portion of the salary due was paid to the soldiers.  They were content with this pay when they received it but often they were left unpaid for years.  When money was appropriated from the treasuries of the central governments for soldier's salaries, the red tape involved again deprived them of their due because as the money was transferred from one department to another, each official took a share.  The money melted like ice and the soldiers were left out.  So soldiers depended upon force and authority for a living and, although they were also under authority, they did as they pleased because superiors permitted them to rob and collect false taxes on a commission basis.  Travelers were robbed and towns looted by soldiers.  When regiments were transferred from one place to another, small villages suffered heavy losses.  The soldiers took money, animals, clothing and food. 


Today the stipend remains very small.  Before the World War, Turkish soldiers were paid about one dollar a month and Persian soldiers were paid only about thirty cents a month.  The soldiers who came to Jesus may have been captains.  Officers were guilty of the injustices practiced on the public because they were not satisfied with their own stipends and sent the privates out to extract money from citizens by unjust means."  (Lamsa, George M.. Gospel Light: From Aramaic on the Teachings of Jesus. Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1936, 1967. 229-230)


See 4811, be fig informers.



1293 - an alternation (diastolē, noun) - Diastolē is used 3 times (Rom. 3:22; 10:12; 1 Cor. 14:7) in the new covenant writings by apostle Paul.  The scriptural meaning of this word appears to be about a specific kind of separation, alternation


I believe since apostle Paul chose not to use the word diairesis (differences, in reference to diversity between like things), or diakrinō (to judge through, i.e., to determine the meaning of or between things), but he chose to use the diastolē, that Paul desires to put the emphasis on the idea of alternation; that God is not fickle over whom he chooses to favor as his "chosen" people, first selecting one people to give to them his Spirit, the Judeans, and then abandoning them to choose another people to give to them his Spirit, the Hellens.  Paul is presenting the idea that God is absolutely not alternating between the Judeans and the Hellens (gentiles) in showing his favor, and not abandoning the Judeans on account of their rejection of his son.  This point Paul emphatically states twice in his letter to the Romans, in Rom. 11:1-2, and in its associated context.


Yes, the Judeans corporately rejected God's son, Jesus Christ, as their promised messiah.  But on account of their rejection of the Christ God the heavenly Father is not subsequently rejecting them to show favor to the Hellens (gentiles).  God does not play favorites, but is a respecter of those who follow the conditions he sets forth in his Word, his rule book.  God respects anyone who has belief in his heart of he and his Word, and especially belief in his son Jesus Christ.  Under God's new covenant in Jesus' shed blood, all of God's great and precious promises for mortalkind are fulfilled in a person's life through their own belief in their own hearts of God's Word.  Since Jesus' shed blood, believe is the only thing a person can do now to obtain anything from God under the new covenant in Jesus' shed blood, which new covenant is referred to as the Law of Belief (Rom. 3:27, 10:17; Heb. 11:1, 6).


Through Jesus' shed blood, and subsequently God's new covenant based upon it, God the heavenly Father now extends his gratuitous grace to all mortalkind.  God is simply extending the scope of his chosen people to now include all mortalkind on the face of the earth, to whom he desires to show favor through his son Jesus Christ.  God now makes it available for all of mortalkind to become righteous, because all of mortalkind is in sin, and he desires all to be redeemed back to him as his children (Acts 2:21; Rom. 10:13; 1 Tim. 2:4).



1304 - rubbing through (dietribō, verb) - A common colloquialism used by Luke in Acts, and it is used once in the gospel of John.  We can see from the contexts in which it is used that it refers to having close, personal social contact with others.  In the texts it is used in the sense that as Jesus, Paul and Barnabas, and others were going through certain cities and regions they rubbed with the disciples as they went through.  The purpose of rubbing with the disciples was to make them stedfast in their souls in their belief of God's Word (Acts 14:22).  It is virtually identical in meaning to our English idioms of rubbing shoulders with, or rubbing elbows with others.  As we in English would say, they went through the cities and regions rubbing elbows and shoulders with the disciples.  It is also related to our English idiom of being rubbed the wrong way, as Herod was in Acts 12:19, and as he rubbed others the wrong way, as he came down from Judea into Caesarea, as he rubbed through searching for Peter, to kill him.  The rubbing Herod did consisted of close, personal interrogations of others to try and find Peter.  This idiom is used 9 times in the UBS4: John 3:22; Acts 12:19; 14:3; 14:28; 15:35; 16:12; 20:6; 25:6; 25:14.  See also 3859, "rubbing through alongside".



1308 - to bear through (diapherō, verb) - Many verbs are used both objectively and subjectively, as is this verb also.  Figuratively, and subjectively, it is used exactly as our modern idioms "to bear through", mentally and/or physically, an ordeal of some kind, and "to bear up", mentally and/or physically, under pressure, as recorded in (Mat. 12:12; Rom. 2:18; Gal. 4:1).  When it's used objectively it means to physically carry something from one place through to another place, as recorded in (Mark 11:16; Acts 13:49, 27:27). 


In Gal. 2:6, whatever level of esteem the false brothers were once held in publicly, and/or whatever good reputation and standing they may ever have had in the community, bears through, or carries no meaning whatsoever, not one, to apostle Paul. Whatever they were at one time doesn't matter. Now, they are false brothers to him.  Because the God doesn't look at mortal's outward appearance and reputation (face value), but inwardly upon the estate of a mortal's heart, whether it has belief in  his Word and repentance to him.


In the context, apostle Paul appears to be making a comparison between the intangible mental estate of the believing brothers, who believe his evangelism of the name of Jesus Christ, to the mental estate of the false brothers [v4], who in their hearts are still following the old covenant Mosaic Law about circumcision, and thusly demanded that Titus be physically circumcised [v3].  Yes, Paul referred to those who still believe that the God requires all to be physically circumcised, as false brothers [v4].  Under the new covenant in Jesus’ shed blood, a physical circumcision is no longer required.  See Rom. 2:13-29, in which Paul explains that a “circumcision” of a person’s heart, which circumcision invites the reception of God’s gift of his holy Spirit, is the only kind of circumcision which now matters under God’s new covenant. See also Rom. 3:19-31, 1 Cor. 7:19; Gal. 5:6, 6:15; Phil. 3:3; Col. 2:11, 3:9-11.


In Phil. 1:9-10 apostle Paul says he prays to God that the love of the believers, in the area of Philippi, would abound yet more and more, into them experientially knowing the great grace of him.  One simply knowing a great and precious promise graciously given to us under God's new covenant in Jesus' blood, from simply reading about it, is one thing.  But when those promises actually start coming to pass in a person's life, that's when a person can say he experientially knows the grace of God.  When those great and precious promises of the grace of God start bearing through into reality in a person's life, that's when a disciple can say that he has proved God's Word, that God's promises are true (Rom. 2:18, 18-21).  And, as is stated dozens of times, many times over and over, what is required in a believer, a disciple, to receive anything from God?  Belief of God's Word (Heb. 11:1, 6)!


In 1 Cor. 15:41 apostle Paul speaks of heavenly bodies having varying levels of brightness of light, or "glory", which they "bear through" space to present before our eyes.  In the standing up of dead ones (resurrection) the bodies of the believers will vary also one from another in glory, or light, with which they shall shine (1 Cor. 15:42).  In Mat. 10:31, 6:26 and Luke 12:7, 24 Jesus says that the value of his disciples, those who believe upon his name, "bears through" to God much more than the value of birds.



1334 - to lead through (diēgeomai, verb) - This colloquialism means to thoroughly explain something to someone, step by step, so there can be no confusion about what something means, or what has happened.

In Acts 8:33 the idiom is used in a quote of Isaiah as it is being read by the eunuch. 


In Acts 8:33 two things are referred to as lifted, i.e., stolen:  Jesus' fair judgment by the religious leaders and subsequently by the Roman occupation, and secondly the knowledge of how "the life" of him was stolen from the land.  The knowledge and understanding of the life of Jesus Christ, beginning with the knowledge and understanding of all the prophecies concerning the coming of the promised messiah (his virgin birth for example), the signs of his coming which the people were to look for, the prophecies the coming messiah would fulfill when he came (the blind see, the lame are healed, etc.), so that the people could see and recognize the coming messiah when he came.  As Acts 8:33 quotes Isaiah as prophesying, who in Jesus' generation is teaching anyone all these things?  Who is leading people through the knowledge and understanding of all this, leading them through this subject matter step by step, helping them to see, know, understand and BELIEVE God's Word about the coming messiah, Jesus Christ?  The answer to Isaiah's prophetic interrogative in Acts 8:33b is, only John the Baptist, who they killed to shut his mouth, and Jesus Christ, who they killed to shut his mouth, and the apostles, who they killed to shut their mouths.  Jesus Christ referred to the religious leaders of his generation as the children of their father the devil (John 8:44).  


Today, in our generation, who is leading people through this knowledge to help them get the understanding of it and the subsequent BELIEF of God's Word about the coming messiah, Jesus Christ, AND what he came to do, which was to make available to mortalkind, through his shed blood, the new birth above in God's Spirit, the baptism in the gift of holy Spirit, God's paternal Spirit, from Christ Jesus?  Who's making this knowledge known today?  In which "church" on which corner is this knowledge and subject matter being opened up to the congregations, and the people are being led through it step by step to know and understand and BELIEVE it to receive the new birth above in God's paternal Spirit (Joel 2:28-30; John 3; Acts 2; Rom. 8; 1 Cor. 12; Col. 1:27; 1 Pet. 1:24)?



1351 - double-worded (dilogos, adj.) - This idiom is used one time by apostle Paul is his letter to Timothy, 1 Tim. 3:8.  I take it to mean being self-contradictory, saying one thing one minute, and saying something the next minute which appears to be contradictory to what was said before.  The opposite to being double-worded is to speak with enunciation, Gk. epō, used about 977 times in the new covenant texts.  When Jesus Christ spoke, and especially when he taught, he very often enunciated. 


To enunciate something involves HOW both sentences, and its words, are stated.  Enunciation, according to how it is used in the ancient texts, regarding sentences, means to say something through the use of simple and direct statements, and saying them in a systematic way.  Regarding how individual words are spoken, according to how it is used in the ancient texts, enunciation means to pronounce a word clearly, distinctly, and articulately, so that the meaning of a word can be obviously and definitely expressed.  Through the use of enunciation a listener is entirely cut off from using an excuse that they didn't hear or understand something from a fault on the part of the speaker.  Scriptural enunciation places the responsibility to hear and understand something entirely in the hands of the listener's communications skills.  Enunciation, when used properly as a teaching and communications tool, ensures there can be no possible misunderstanding or confusion over what is said and meant by both the words making up a sentence, and the overall meaning of the sentence as well.  See 2036.


Some Western English idioms which have approximately the same meaning may be, double-tongued, and to talk out of both sides of one's mouth.  In Paul's usage of double-worded in 1 Tim. 3:8 he may imply deliberate and/or casual deceit on the part of a double-worded speaker, since he does use the word reputable (Gk. semnos), a character description, in the immediate context of the verse.



1369 - cut into two (dichazō, verb) - In Mat. 10:34-37 Jesus refers to the very ancient idiom of a tree being a type to the bloodline of a family, a "family tree".  A family's lineage can be looked at as a tree with branches and sprouts, with each sprout being the birth of a son.  Those sons marry and likewise produce sons, which are more sprouts on the family tree.  As offspring continues to produce more offspring the sprouts gradually grow into branches themselves.  To this very day all nationalities are familiar with this concept.  Jesus' allusion was to cutting off branches and sprouts from the old family tree, a sin nature-corrupted "tree".  However, in the immediate context Jesus doesn't say into what tree the twigs which are cut off shall be grafted.  If they are cut off from the old family tree, into what new tree shall they be grafted?  Apostle Paul addresses this part of the Great Mystery in Rom. 11.  


Jesus refers to this ancient idiom in some of his other teachings as well.  In Mat. 15:13 Jesus referred to the Pharisees as "plants", plants which his Father God has not "planted", i.e., they have not received God's seed (spora, 1 Pet. 1:23) planted within them, they have not received the new birth above in God's Spirit (Rom. 8:9-16; 1 Cor. 3:16).  Jesus taught about this new birth above in his teaching to Nicodemus (John 3).  Apostle Peter preached to the Judeans in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:14) that the twelve disciple's baptism in the gift of holy Spirit, which they had just witnessed with their own eyes and heard with their ears, was the beginning of the coming to pass of the Joel 2:28-32 Great Mystery prophecy which began the dispensation of time wherein God's Spirit (Gk., spora) can now become planted within a mortal through their belief upon the name of Jesus (Rom. 10:9-10), thus making them new creations (2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15).  Now Jesus himself is the root of the new family tree, the family of God, and all those who become implanted with God's Spirit in them become true, through spiritual new birth above, sons and daughters of God.  Before Jesus Christ made the new birth above in God's Spirit available to mortalkind, through his shed blood, death and resurrection, the children of Israel, under the Law dispensation, could only be adopted children of God.  


In several of Jesus' teachings he refers to mortals as trees, and the works mortals do as either good or bad fruit (Mat. 3:10, 7:17-19, 12:33; Luke 6:43-44).  In Mat. 21:19-20 and in Mark 11:12-14, 19-22, the fig tree is an allusion to a mortal who does not bring forth good "fruit" acceptable unto God the heavenly Father.  Jesus says that acceptable "fruit" is belief in God (See Heb. 1:6).  In Luke 3:9 any tree which does not bring forth good "fruit" is cut down and thrown in the fire.  This idiom of trees representing mortals is even more abundant in the old covenant writings.  Start with a word search on the words tree, branch, etc.



1374 - double-souled (dipsuchos, adj.) - An idiom used in James 1:8 in the context of a believer's ability to believe God's Word to receive a promise from God the heavenly Father, in this case wisdom, by requesting it.  It is equivalent to our idiom of being double-minded, i.e., not being able to make up our mind.  James says God the heavenly Father is willing to give a believer the wisdom for which they ask, if they ask in belief of God's Word, without doubting.  James 1:6 says a believer needs to ask, believing it is God's will for them to receive wisdom from him, and not start "judging through", i.e., start thinking of various reasons why God the heavenly Father may not answer your request because of this sin or that sin, or something, thinking that you are not worthy.   Jesus Christ said the same thing, ask, search and knock (Mat. 7:7). 


God the heavenly Father is waiting for us to ask.  Listen, Jesus shed his blood for your release from the penalty for your sin, and the God the heavenly Father says He'll remember them no more (Heb. 8:12)!  Jesus shed his blood so that you can be more than a conqueror (Rom. 8:37) in all things in your life, so that you can do all things through Christ who has strengthened (inherently empowered) us (Phil. 4:13), including making a request to the Father for wisdom which we all need, Which James says he shall give it to us if we ask and believe. 


Look, if we had more of God's wisdom it may help us to cut down on our "sin time", right?  Why shouldn't the Father agree to that?  So we need to quit judging through all of the reasons why we are such worthless worms and see ourselves as Jesus Christ has made us to become, sons of God, more than conquerors who can do all things, and quit judging through it, which does nothing more than usher in doubt, worry and fear, which defeats believing.  Look, God's Word says he wants us to have wisdom.  God said it, that settles it!  Ask your heavenly Father for wisdom and then thank him in the name of Jesus Christ.   Quit over-thinking it.  The Father desires us to have wisdom.  That settles it.  Jesus' shed blood guarantees it for us!  And nothing can change the Father's desire for us (Rom. 8:38-39). 


Listen, God our Father answers the prayers of sinners occasionally, because it is the benevolence of God which leads sinners into repentance (Rom. 2:4)!  If he had to wait for us to become sin-free by our own initiatives, not one prayer would ever get answered because we can never become 100% sin-free.  But that sin can be forgiven, through Jesus' shed blood, which makes us as good as sin-free in the Father's eyes, which is exactly why he can and he desires to answer our prayers, if we only ask and believe he has the desire and ability to answer our prayers.  It's that simple!  For more on double-souled, see James 4:8; 1 John 3:18-24; Heb. 11:6.



1410 - to be inherently powered (dunamai, verb) - Inherent power is the power inherently resident in something.  While reading the passages where this root and all of its inflected forms are used throughout the new covenant texts of the Bible it is important to recognize the source of the power.  Throughout the texts inherent power is defined has having three different sources:


1.  The inherent power of a mortal being, which is weak (Mat. 26:41; Mark 14:38) compared to the other two sources.


2.  God, who is a spirit-based being, whose Spirit is all powerful, whether working independently or working in and through a mortal being in an agency relationship, as he worked in and through his firstborn son Christ Jesus (*Mat. 9:8, 11:5; Mark 6:5; Luke 5:17, 7:16, 22; John 3:2, 5:19-20, 8:16, 26, *29, 9:33, *10:38, 12:1, *14:10-11, *16-20, 28, 16:32b; *Acts 2:22-24, 10:38, 12:7; *2 Cor. 5:18-19; Eph. 3:16-19, 4:6; *Col. 1:19-20, 2:9; 2 Pet. 2:4; 1 John 5:20; Jude 1:6).


3.  The devil, Satan, and/or demon spirits, who also are spirit-based beings, whose spirit is powerful, whether working independently or working in and through a mortal being whom the devil, or demon spirits, take captive (Mark 5:3-4; Luke 8:29; 2 Tim. 2:26; ).


Some important references are:


In Mat. 3:9 God is inherently powered to arouse born ones of Abraham out of stones. 


In Mat. 8:2 the leper believed that Jesus was inherently powered to wash down the leper from his leprosy. 


In Mat. 9:28 the blind ones believed that Jesus was inherently powered to heal them of their blindness. 


In Mat. 17:14-21 Jesus' disciples were not yet inherently powered to cast a demon spirit out of a lunatic because of their lack of belief, prayer and fasting. 


In Mark 2:1-6, in Capernaum, some were not inherently powered to carry a paralytic to Jesus because of the crowd, and so they removed part of the roof of the house to let him down to Jesus. 


In Mark 6:1-6, Jesus, in his own fatherland, was not inherently powered to do any inherently powered work there (except to a few desperate ones, putting upon them his hands), because of their unbelief. 


In John 3, Jesus teaches Nicodemus that no mortal is inherently powered to see the Kingdom of God unless he is generated above (Verse3), i.e., born above in God's gift of holy Spirit (verse 5). 


• In John 5:44 Jesus asks;


John 5:44 (LIT/UBS4) How (pōs) <can> you (humeis) inherently power yourselves (dunasthe) to believe (pisteusai), receiving (lambanontes) glory (doxan) alongside3844 (para) of one another (allēlōn), and (kai) you absolutely do not search (ou zēteite) for the (tēn) glory (doxan), the (tēn) [glory, RE] alongside3844, 3936 (para) of the (tou) only (monou) God (theou)!?


In John 10:29, absolutely no one (Gk., oudeis, very emphatic), which must include the devil and all demon spirits, is inherently powered to snatch out of the Father's hand all those who believe upon Jesus' name, who are his sheep, who hear his voice and follow him. 


• In Rom. 8:5-9 apostle Paul says that those who have not received God's Spirit in them have thoughts about being the things of the flesh, which thoughts are enemies of God, and those thoughts produce a result, that they are not inherently powered to please God.  But those who have received God's Spirit in them have thoughts about the things of the Spirit, and therefore they please God, and thereby can effectively participate in his new covenant. 


In 1 Cor. 2:14 the soul-based (psuchikos) mortal (yet in the flesh, see Rom. 8), who has the spirit of the cosmos, who searches for mortalkind's wisdom about God (verse 13), is absolutely not inherently powered to experientially know the things of the Spirit of God. 


• In 1 Cor. 12:3 apostle Paul says that absolutely no one in inherently powered to enunciate "Lord Jesus" if they do not have God's gift of his holy Spirit. 


In 1 Cor. 15:50 apostle Paul says that flesh and blood can absolutely not inherently power itself to inherit the Kingdom of God.  


• In Eph. 6:10-18 apostle Paul teaches that the holy ones (disciples of Jesus Christ) are to take up the panoply (full set of armor) of God to become inherently empowered to stand against the methods of the devil; to stand against evil, and to have throws (wrestling maneuvers) to use to defeat the spirit-based ones of evil, demon spirits and the devil himself, in heavenly places. 


• In 2 Tim. 3:1-7 apostle Paul teaches us that in the last days shall come chaotic times, when mortals shall be doing many evil things, one of which is always being discipled (learning) and not at any time becoming inherently powered to come into an experiential knowledge of Truth.  They are always studying the wrong things, especially mortal-made wisdom and mortal-made denominational religious goo pucky which has been invented over the centuries and is now piled high on the barn floor, which endless false beliefs and practices can't be substantiated and verified out of the holy scriptures as being of the authentic orthodoxy of Christ Jesus and his apostles. 


That's why belief in those things produces no results! (Acts 17:11-12).  If you're serious about your fellowship with God and his firstborn son Christ Jesus, and your belief in what you've been taught produces no results, then first you should consider the authenticity of what you're believing: is it of the true orthodoxy which Christ Jesus and his apostles taught, or is it only some mortal-made religious junk that has been invented later, but is claimed to be of the true orthodoxy?  This is almost always the cause of this problem.  God hasn't changed!  He's still on his throne! 


When people fulfill the new covenant requirements, they receive those things promised under the new covenant (2 Pet. 1:4)!  Those new covenant benefits are by far much greater and more spectacular than the benefits under the old covenant (Mat. 6:31-33, 7:7-8; Luke 6:38).  But, in modern Christianity today the devil works hard to silence anything and everything about God's new covenant.  How often is God's new covenant preached and taught, and into how much depth, in you're place of worship?  Are leadership all wrapped up trying to perfect you in the flesh through producing sin-consciousness in your mind all of the time, going over old covenant passages over and over again, instead of teaching you how to think, see, and walk spiritually under the new covenant, which would actually produce the inherent power in you to solve and overcome problems of fleshly lusts?


Often times it's not a believer's lack of desire and inherent power to believe and act upon God's Word to achieve the results desired, but it is their belief and action based upon false truth, false doctrine, false orthodoxy, and/or lack of it, which is the cause of the lack of the desired results produced (Mark 9:23).  It's the idolatry of false orthodoxy which has led people away from their full participation in God's new covenant (Luke 11:52).  The "key", the true orthodoxy, has been removed, and almost no one sees that something is missing!  This is exactly how the devil has made his prey of those who are too lazy to search first for the Kingdom of God, but who would rather simply be spoon-fed while sitting in pews.  From where is your inherent power coming, or are you defeated daily?  You may be getting your butt kicked daily, but you don't realize that you are in a spiritual battle, just considering it as only a natural part of "life".  Que sera, sera!.  That's absolutely not the abundant life Christ Jesus promised (John 10:9-10)!


For the Spirit of God being in Christ, and the Spirit of God and Christ being in those who believe upon his name, making them more than conquerors now, see Mat. 10:25; Acts 1:4-8; Rom. 8:9-11, 37; 1 Cor. 12:6; 2 Cor. 2:14, 13:3-5; Gal. 1:16; Eph. 1:19-20, 4:13, 6:13-18; Phil. 2:13, 4:13; Col. 1:27-29; 1 Thes. 2:13; 2 Tim. 1:7; 1 John 4:4, 5:4-5!



1411 - inherent power (dunamis, noun) - See 1410- to be inherently powered.



1424 - sinking (dusmē, noun) - The colloquial way of referencing the direction which we call west.



1437 - if perhaps (ean, conj.) - In John 15:4, 6, 7, 10 the question Jesus suggests is whether a disciple of him desires to continue to remain a disciple of him.  This is represented by the conjunction in the Greek text, ean, from combining ei, a particle of condition, and an, a particle of uncertainty.  Whether the present condition of a disciple's discipleship continues, is uncertain, because it is determined by the disciple's own free will desire.  If a disciple desires to continue to stay "into" Jesus, then the thing for which he or she has desired and asked shall come to pass for them, provided further conditional requirements as to whether the thing asked for is according to God's Will.



1448 - has come near (ēngizō, verb) - As recorded in Mat. 3:2, John the Baptist preached that the Kingdom of the Heavens has come near (ēngiken), about two thousand years ago already! As recorded in Mat. 4:17, and in other passages, starting at the beginning of Jesus’ earthly ministry, he also preached that the Kingdom of the Heavens/God/Father of him has come near (ēngiken)!


Was the Kingdom of the Heavens/God as near to the believers about two thousand years ago as Judas was to Jesus on that night, the night Judas walked up to Jesus and gave him a kiss (Luke 22:47)? For the meaning of the Greek word ēngiken, look up and read all of the passages where an inflected form of its root word ēngizō is used, searching on Strong’s # 1448.


There’s about 43 usages of ēngizō, in which all of their contexts they unanimously agree in the definition of the answer to the question of “How near is near?” In all of their contexts, the things which are said to have come near to one another are literally near enough and close enough to immediately be entered into, and/or apprehended, and/or experienced!


Scripturally ēngizō, meaning near, can’t possibly mean “over two thousand years away into the future” as the invented mortal-made theology insists. Something separated from something else by such a great distance in time (Acts 2:39) or geographically (Luke 15:13, 19:12) is the meaning of the Greek word makros, Strong’s # 3117, meaning far off.


Jesus Christ and his disciples/apostles taught during the time of Jesus’ earthly ministry, both before and after his resurrection, that the Kingdom of the Heavens/God has come near, which means that it is absolutely not far off!


For the Kingdom of the Heavens/God/the Father having come near, see Mat. 3:2, 4:17, 10:7; Mark 1:15; Luke 10:9, 11.


For coming near to a village/city, see Mat. 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 7:12, 18:35, 19:29, 41, 24:28; Acts 9:3, 10:9, 22:6.


For the time coming near for crops to put forth produce, see Mat. 21:34.


For the hour having come near for the Son of the Mortal to be passed aside into the hands of sinners, see Mat. 26:45.


For the one coming near who shall pass aside Jesus into the hands of sinners, see Mat. 26:46; Mark 14:42; Luke 22:47.


For a thief coming near to steal, see Luke 12:33.


For tax collectors and sinners coming near to Jesus to hear him, see Luke 15:1.


For a son coming near to his father’s house and hearing music, and seeing dancing, see Luke 15:25.


For a blind man being led near to Jesus to receive healing, see Luke 18:40.


For Jesus coming near to the base of a mountain, see Luke 19:37.


For the time of false Christs/deliverers/preachers/teachers/etc. coming near, see Luke 21:8.


For seeing the time for the desolation of Jerusalem having come near, see Luke 21:20.


For the redemption coming near for those who believe upon Jesus’ name, see Luke 21:28.


For the feast of the unleavened bread having come near, see Luke 22:1.


For Jesus having come near to two men walking on the road to Emmaus, see Luke 24:15.


For the time of a promise of God coming near to come to pass, see Acts 7:17.


For a tribune having come near to Jesus, see Acts 21:33.


For the apostle Paul coming near to the time of his annihilation, see Acts 23:15.


For the time of day having come near, see Rom. 13:12.


For a fellow worker of apostle Paul, Epaphroditus, having come near to death, see Phil. 2:30.


For the Mosaic law having helped us to come near to God, see Heb. 7:19.


For the day coming near for believers to receive the coming to pass of God’s promised new covenant for them, see Heb. 10:25.


For us coming near to the God, and he coming near to us, see James 4:8.


For the presence of the Lord God having come near, see James 5:8.


For having come near the completion of all things for our deliverance and wholeness, see 1 Pet. 4:7.



1453 - be aroused (egeirō, verb) - Depending upon the context where used, it means to wake up and become alert, either literally or figuratively, from either death, or sleep, or from resting.  In general it means to get up and get moving; to start doing what one is supposed to be doing.



1456 - the Renewal (enkainia, common noun) - In John 10:22 apostle John records the time of year in which yet another schism broke out among the Judeans over the meaning of the words which Jesus spoke.  The time of year was winter, just before the Renewal.  Freeman says in his book, "Manners And Customs Of The Bible",


"This was a feast instituted in honor of the restoration of divine worship in the temple, and its formal rededication to sacred uses after it had been defiled by the heathen under Antiochus Epiphanes.  This dedication took place B. C. 164, and an account of it is given in the apocryphal book of I Maccabees iv, 52-59.  The feast lasted two days, and could be celebrated not only in Jerusalem, but elsewhere. 


In later times it was known by the name of the 'Feast of Lamps,' of the 'Feast of Lights,' because of the custom of illuminating the houses while celebrating it.  The rabbins have a tradition that, when the Jews under Judas Maccabeus drove the heathen out of the temple and cleansed it from its pollution, they found a solitary bottle of sacred oil which had escaped the profane search of the heathen.  This was all they had for lighting the sacred lamps; but by a miracle this was made to last for eight days, which period was therefore the time for the duration of the feast. "


Josephus writes of this dedication in Antiq. xii, vii,7.  According to the holy scriptures, if the Judeans hadn't already departed from keeping enough of the Mosaic Law to stay in God's favor, he wouldn't have removed his hand of protection and blessing from being over the children of Israel, and the Greek "madman" would not have been able to go against God's will to gain an advantage over the children of Israel.  Therefore the temple must have already been profaned and polluted by the children of Israel themselves, by their own out-of-bounds sin, law-breaking and covenant-breaking, before Antiochus Epiphanes arrived.



1492 - to see (eidō, verb) - A verb very commonly used to refer to objective vision, the ability of one's eye to see objects.  However it is used subjectively and therefore idiomatically by Jesus Christ in John 3:3, about anyone's ability to "see" the Kingdom of the God.  Jesus speaks of the Kingdom of the God as absolutely not being an objective or locative place, other than "the Kingdom of the God is within you" (Luke 17:20-21).  Apostle Paul uses this verb in 1 Thes. 4:4, in the sense of seeing the need to take care of and getting done one's own personal business, similar to our English idiom, to see to it.  Apostle Paul, speaking to the male believers in the area of Thessalonica, preaches/teaches to them that before they get to the point of suffering from the lust to have a sexual encounter with the wife of another brother in Christ, to literally displace him in the sexual act of intercourse, but that God desires "for each of you to have seen to acquiring the vessel of his own", to finding his own wife, so as not to become an adulterer, but so that he can remain "in holiness and esteemed value", as a son of God, walking in truth.



1503 - has become iconized (eoiken, verb) - A figure of speech used to refer to only a symbol or an icon of something, but absolutely not to the real thing itself.  A bottle of Coca Cola has a bottle cap on it upon which is printed the words "Coca Cola".  But that doesn't mean you can drink the bottle cap!  The bottle cap with the printing on it serves as only an icon of the liquid coca cola inside of the bottle, which liquid can be drank. 


In James 1:6 a believer who questions the wisdom of the God has become iconized for a surge of the sea, a wave or swell; he being squalled and he being tossed, he being made helpless by the overpowering moving waters.  And as you may know, water is often used in God's Word for a type to demon spirit activity, as well as a type to holy Spirit as well, depending upon contexts.


In James 1:23, a slave of God, a disciple of Christ Jesus, seeing himself in a mirror and contemplating who and what the God has made him to become in Christ Jesus, who after walking away later forgets who and what he was, becomes only an icon of a slave of God and a disciple of Christ Jesus, forgetting to believe God's Word, pray for needs, ask to receive, and do good works which benefit others.  He has become only an icon of a real slave of God and disciple of Christ Jesus.  He has become like only a labeled bottle cap, which can help no one's thirst to be quenched, not even his own.



1506 - clear-judging (eilikrinēs, adj.) - Clarity of thought; thought and deliberation which takes into consideration all of the related facts about an issue before arriving at a conclusion, decision or judgment.  In Phil. 1:9-10 apostle Paul says he prays over the believers in Philippi, that their love will yet abound more and more into them experientially knowing the grace of God, i.e. all of the things graciously given to a disciple of Christ Jesus under God's new covenant in Jesus shed blood.  Love energizes the Spirit of God in a believer into it manifesting the things of God into a believer's life, whatever things a believer may need.  Through belief in a disciple's heart, and the desire of a disciple to love God and to love his fellow man, God's great and precious promises come into manifestation in a disciple's life.  This is an important part of how a disciple of Christ Jesus grows up into the fullness of the maturity of Christ (Eph. 4:13), and how he proves to himself that the promises of God are true.  In 2 Pet. 3:1- apostle Peter tells us that remembering the knowledge of God's Word helps our thoughts to become and remain clear-judging.



1520 - one (heis, numeral) - Perhaps one of the most important uses of the word heis in the holy scriptures is its use in reference to how many spirits constitute the one true God almighty, which answer is only one (Mat. 19:17, 23:9; Mark 10:18, 12:29, 32; Luke 18:19; John 8:41, 10:30, 17:11, 21-23; Rom. 3:30; 1 Cor. 6:17, 8:4, 6, 12:11, 13; Gal. 3:20; Eph. 2:18, 4:4, 6; Phil. 1:27; 1 Tim. 2:5; James 2:19).  Maybe the second most important use of the word heis is in reference to the one body of Christ.  The one body of Christ is the subject at the heart of the knowledge of the Great Mystery; also referred to as:


the mystery of the Kingdom of God (Mark 4:11),

the mystery of his (God's) desire (Eph. 1:9),

the mystery of the Christ (Eph. 3:4, Col. 4:3),

the mystery of the evangelism (Eph. 6:19),

the mystery of the God of Christ (Col. 2:2),

the mystery of the belief (1 Tim. 3:9),

the mystery of the piety (1 Tim. 3:16), and

the mystery of the God (Rev. 10:7). 


Collectively, these mysteries are referred to by Christ Jesus as the mysteries (plural) of the Kingdom (singular) of the Heavens (plural) (Mat. 13:11), and as the mysteries of the Kingdom of the God (Luke 8:10) also. 


Nowhere in the holy scriptures has Christ Jesus, or any of his apostles, or any of the prophets, or anyone, used the word heis in a reference as being one collective of a group of three.  That kind of a reference is simply, and very tellingly, not in the holy scriptures.  The lack of this kind of collective reference should not be looked at as an error on the part of Christ Jesus, or of his apostles, or of God, whose holy Spirit was working and energizing in and through all of them as they spoke and recorded God's Word (2 Pet. 1:20-21), which supposed error in the orthodoxy of Christ Jesus needed to be "fixed" by the "church" in the fourth century.



1525 - she entered in (eisēlthon, verb) - The TR and the UBS4 both show this inflected form in Luke 7:44. Every other occurrence of its use in the new covenant texts is in the 3rd person plural which is corroborated by those contexts as well. Yet here in Luke 7:44 the translators translate it as a 1st person singular, for Jesus saying, "I entered in". And there is no contextual evidence present to indicate that the words' usage was intended to be a 3rd person plural, as in all other usage contexts.

My suspicion is that its usage is a textual spelling error in Luke 7:44, which original spelling was likely eisēlthen, the 3rd person singular inflected form, meaning "she entered in".

Is there any Greek text which shows eisēlthen? 
See verse 37 which indicates this "sinful" woman (verse 39) lived some place else in the city, but not in the Pharisee’s home.  Jesus' point appears to me to be that someone from outside of the Pharisee's home had to come into his home to demonstrate the kind of belief, humility, and servitude to Jesus as the ""sinful" woman demonstrated to him, which kind of belief and humility the Pharisee did not, or could not, demonstrate and shown to him.



1569 - awed-out (ekthambos, adj.) - An idiom used to describe the superlative degree of an emotional impact, of the awe a person can experience.  In Acts 3:11, those who witnessed the healing of the lame man by God through the hands of his agents, apostles Peter and John, were so full of awe at the reality of the healing of him that they couldn't possibly have any more awe over it.  See 1605 for a similar kind of idiom which uses the preposition ek, meaning out, to express the superlative degree of an emotion.



1578 - to recline out (ekklinō, verb) - A Hebraism meaning to get on the recliner and lie back, relax, and do nothing.  In Rom. 3:12 apostle Paul refers to an old covenant prophesy (Psalm 14; Psalm 53) in which mortals are described as being on their recliners, who while upon their recliners have all become so lazy and useless that there is not even one single mortal searching for God and his Word, and putting it together to know, understand, believe and do his Word.  This is a metaphor to the height of laziness and slothfulness.  The reference made in the old covenant prophecy in Psalm 14 and Psalm 53 is about mortals, who after being out all day doing evil, come home to their recliners which serve as metaphorical nightcaps, as types to graves, which shall become their just rewards for their devilish and corrupt works. 


In the ancient Middle East there was a piece of furniture known as a recliner.  They were in many shapes and sizes as our are now.  It was a sort of bed-like furnishing, somewhat elevated above the level of the floor, which was padded and made comfortable to sit or lie upon.  Slaves may have had only a small little makeshift kind of recliner, or bed, made of anything handy to make it a little softer than the bare floor, while wealthy people had very extravagantly designed ultra-comfortable recliners.  As you may imagine, the recliners were used while eating, resting and sleeping, exactly as how we use ours today. 


In our modern society what may first come to mind is a Lazy-Boy style of recliner (which I have) in which we sit; and then when we throw the lever up out pops the leg rest, and the back rest can fold back and down converting the chair almost into a sort of bed.  Some even have heating and message units built into them.  There is nothing better to come home to, after working hard all day, than our Lazy-Boy recliners, which are strategically placed in front of the television.  I eat occasionally in my recliner, just like mortalkind has always done since the beginning of time.  I even fall asleep in it occasionally.  Apostle Paul, quoting Psalm 14 and 53, says, ALL have got on their recliners, reclined out, and have become useless!  Paul cautions the Roman converts, and us, those following Jesus Christ, that we should not allow our "recliners" to draw us away from searching for God and his Word, the knowledge, wisdom, understanding and belief of it, to put it together in our minds so that it compels us to search after God and do good works according to his Word.



1580 - he was being outfitted (ekkomizō, verb) - Another "out" idiom.  In Luke 7:12, of the only usage of this word in the biblical new covenant writings, its usage here seems peculiar and stands out, since bastazō, as used in verse 14, meaning to carry or bare, is always used when the simple meaning of to carry something is intended.  But in verse 12, exekomizeto has much more depth of meaning than bastazō.  In verse 12, exekomizeto, since one of its roots is komizō, meaning to provide for, in this context refers to the whole process of preparation for burial.  The body of the widow's only genus son was being outfitted, dressed and prepared for the funeral and burial. 


In our Western English culture the preparation for the burial of one deceased usually, but not always, may include the following preparations: the body may be embalmed, the facial expression is positioned to make it look as though it is relaxed and sleeping, the hair is washed and styled, make up is applied to make the skin look naturally toned, the body is dressed in its burial garments, the head and arms of the body are positioned correctly, decorative furnishings are done to the body such as jewelry, flowers, and any pictures which may possibly be used in the funeral are placed, near, on or in the casket, and any items which are to be buried with the body are placed in the casket.  This is perhaps the most difficult period of the grieving process, preparing the body of a loved one who may never be seen again, dressing them in their favorite clothes and personal furnishings, and saying the last goodbyes.



1586 - speak out (eklegō, verb) - A colloquialism meaning to select out, to pick out, to call out through calling one's name aloud, as Jesus did when he selected his twelve disciples (Luke 6:13; John 6:70, 13:18, 15:16-19; Eph. 1:4; James 2:5).



1592 - they were snooting out (ekmuktērizō, verb) - An idiom meaning to be snooty, haughty, mocking and snobbish; a scornful act of aloof contempt intended to treat another with disdain; similar to turning up one's nose at someone.  The idiom is used twice by Luke, 16:14, 23:35.



1601 - fall out (ekpiptō, verb) - Is a verb commonly used to refer to something objective literally falling out of something else, or something objectively falling out of its normal place or position, or objectively of something becoming abandoned; or subjectively/idiomatically as in something falling out of order.  Used as an idiom it is very similar to our modern English idiom we use when we say, "we didn't anticipate how great the fall out would be".  In our English idiom the noun phrase fall out generally refers to negative and unplanned for circumstances, occurrences and/or conditions as a result of something going wrong.  This is very similar in meaning to this Greek idiom which is based upon the verb usage. 


In some Greek texts the verb is used in Mark 13:25 of the stars falling out of their normal courses in the heaven.  In Acts 12:7 the verb is used of the bonds literally falling out [or off] of Peter's hands while in prison.  In Acts 27:17 Luke uses the verb referring to the ship falling out of its planned course and drifting into the Syrtis (Gk. lit. quicksands), an area off the North African coast, perhaps the area now known as the Gulf of Sidra, an area known for its shallow water shoals, with hidden rocks, sandbanks and quicksand.  Paul uses the term again in Acts 27:26, referring to their ship which will fall out i.e., run aground upon a certain island, about which a messenger gave him revelation.  It is used again in Luke 27:29 for the ship to fall out down jagged places where it would become a shipwreck, and in verse 32 of the soldiers cutting off the ropes of the skiff to allow it fall out into the sea and become abandoned. 


In Rom. 9:6 Paul uses the verb in reference to God's Word falling out, being abandoned by Israel.  But Paul argues that not all those of "Israel" are Israelites by fleshly lineage, but are Israelites based upon their belief in God's promise to Abraham, which belief the believers in Rome (to whom his letter is addresses) have apprehended, which makes the Rome believers true "Israelites" according to God's promise to Abraham.  So then, even though the "children of Israel" rejected their own messiah, and thereby rejected the one true God and Father of the Lord Jesus Christ, thereby rejecting God's Word, God's Word hasn't fallen out and become abandoned in the world entirely, as though God's Word has become shipwrecked, since it is being believed by believers in Rome, many of which are absolutely not of the fleshly lineage of the forefather's of the children of Israel.  God's righteousness is reckoned to a believer absolutely not based upon a mortal's fleshly lineage, but based upon a believer's belief in God's Word and God's son Jesus Christ.



1605 - they were being knocked out, were being knocked out, etc. (ekplesso, verb) - An idiom and/or hyperbolic colloquialism used in Matthew, Mark and Luke.  In Mat. 7:28, when Jesus was teaching the people, the crowds "were being knocked out" in their minds because they heard the straight, unadulterated Word of God like they had never heard it before.  God's Word, when it is not paraphrased and watered down, has a way of shocking people.  From all the other contextual usages, truth that had such a shocking impact on the hearers was idiomatically said to knock them out, because in their minds they were absolutely unable to readily understand the meaning, and/or grasp the depth of its meaning, and/or it flatly contradicted their previously held ideas.  The idiom is that the knowledge and understanding of their conscious mind was so inadequate to comprehend the new truth that it is like they were unconscious, the new shocking truth didn't register at all with whatever they had heard or knew before.  The idiom has come down to modern Western English in much of its ancient form, in the phrases, "well, knock me out", or, she's a knock out!"  The idiom implies belief of the truth on the part of those hearing it.  Some, like the common people, the last ones, believed Jesus.  But some, like the writers, Pharisees and Sadducees, the first ones, didn't believe.



1618 - stretched out (ektenēs, adj.) - This is a colloquialism describing the kind of bow Jesus performed toward God in the record of his prayer to God in Luke 22:44. This is the kind of bow where the one bowing is fully prone, lying on his belly face down.  When this kind of bow is performed toward another human being, the head of the one bowing is placed at the feet of the one to which he is bowing.  This is the bowing position which demonstrates the very utter most submission to the one receiving the bow.  The head is placed at the feet of the one receiving the bow in order to suggest that if the one wished to place his foot upon the head and/or neck of the one bowing, the one bowing shall be totally submissive to it.  The passage in Acts 12:5 may be a reference also to this particular kind of bow being performed by the assembly in their prayer to God for Peter, who was being kept under guard.  In Acts 26:7 apostle Paul refers to the twelfth tribe, Benjamin, apparently his tribe, as being stretched out in serving God night and day.



1630 - feared-out (ekphobos, adj.) - Ones who have become so full of fear that they have lost their wits.



1634 - he/she was blown out cold (ekpsuchō, verb) - An idiom used only by Luke of the new testament writers (Acts 5:5, 10, 12:23).  The idiom suggests blowing out the small flame of a candle or lamp. In Acts 12:21-23 Luke writes about Herod giving some kind of a demonstration while sitting on a step of the tribune.  But while Herod is speaking the public spoke louder saying that Herod spoke with the voice of the God, and absolutely not the voice of a mortal.  But when Herod doesn't give credit to the God for apparently giving Herod some kind of special speaking ability, Luke states that a messenger of the God struck Herod somehow, explaining the result of it as having caused Herod to become one having been eaten of worms, and he was blown out cold, which is an idiom describing how the flame of a candle or lamp is blown out. 


What this implies to me is that God's Spirit was working in Herod, to some extent, to help him lead the children of Israel, if in fact Herod owed the God public thanks for giving him the ability to put on a demonstration of some kind, which demonstration obviously impressed the public, the children of Israel and others, to the extent they said he spoke with “[A] voice (phōnē) of God (theou), and (kai) absolutely not (ouk) of a mortal (anthrōpou)!” 


And then Luke goes on to state, using the middle voice, that Herod "caused himself to become (genomenos) one eaten of worms (skōlēkobrōtos), he was blown out cold1634 (exepsuxen)."  In Acts 2:3, and elsewhere throughout the old covenant writings of the law, the psalms and the prophets, fire is used by God as a type to the presence of his Spirit being within a believer; either in a limited capacity based upon an individual's measured amount of belief in God's Word it his heart, as the God doled it out under his old covenant, or in an unlimited capacity based upon a believers belief and confession of the name of Jesus Christ to be their savior, as the God has made it available under his new covenant. 


Whatever was Herod's level of belief in the one true God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, which I'm guessing wasn't much, apparently he had some spiritual accommodation from the God to help him rule God's people at this time, for which accommodation he should have thanked the God publicly, in front of everyone, which he did not do.  And that arrogant mistake cost him both his kingship, and his life.  When Luke states that "he was blown out cold1634 (exepsuxen)" this suggest two things to me:


- first, because whatever spiritual accommodation God was giving to him to help him rule the children of Israel, that "flame" was blown out by the God.


- and secondly, because Luke states that Herod was "eaten of worms" suggests that his insult to the God cost him an early death if he suffered worms while still alive. 



1657 - freedom, Law of Freedom (eleutheria, noun) -



1661 - elephantine (elephantinos, adj.) - Vincent says,"Only here in the New Testament.  References to ivory are frequent in the Old Testament.  The navy of Tarshish brought ivory to Solomon with apes and peacocks (1 Kings 10:22). his great throne was made of it (1 Kings 10:18).  Ahab's ivory palace (1 Kings 22:39) was probably a house with ivory panels. "Ivory palaces" are mentioned in Psalm 45:8, and "houses of ivory" in Amos 3:15.  The Assyrians carried on a great trade in this article. On the obelisk in the British Museum the captives or tribute-bearers are represented as carrying tusks.  The Egyptians early made use of it in decoration, bringing it mostly from Ethiopia, where, according to Pliny, ivory was so plentiful that the natives made of it door-posts and fences, and stalls for their cattle.  In the early ages of Greece ivory was frequently employed for ornamental purposes, for the trappings of horses, the handles of kegs, and the bosses of shields.  Homer represents an Asiatic woman staining ivory with purple to form trappings for horses, and describes the reins of chariot-horses as adorned with ivory.  The statue of Jupiter by Phidias was of ivory and gold." —Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament



1689 - to look into (emblepō, verb) - To "look  at" or examine something very closely to "see" beyond the apparent face value of its meaning or motive.  To examine something very closely to get the spiritual meaning out of it.  To try to "see" what's in a person's heart.  Our compassion for another becomes apparent when we can "see" another's heart.  Our love energizes our belief (Gal. 5:6), which belief apprehends the ability to "see" spiritually, and to manifest any and all of the nine manifestations of the gift of holy Spirit (1 Cor. 12) in a disciple of Jesus Christ.


Jesus taught us how to "see" into another's heart, to "see" another's beliefs and values which they hold dear to themselves, rather than looking upon one's outer appearance (2 Cor. 5:7, 10:7).


Mat. 12:34 (LIT/UBS4) Ones gendered (gennēmata) of vipers (echidnōn), how (pōs) can you inherently power yourselves (dunasthe) to speak (lalein) good things (agatha), you being (ontes) evil ones (ponēroi)?  


Because (gar) out (ek) of the (tou) surplus (perisseumatos) of the (tēs) heart (kardias) the (to) mouth (stoma) speaks (lalei).


Mat. 12:35 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) good (agathos) mortal (anthrōpos), out (ek) of the (tou) good (agathou) treasure (thēsaurou) [of the heart, v34, RE], throws out (ekballei) good things (agatha).


And (kai) the (ho) evil (ponēros) mortal (anthrōpos), out (ek) of the (tou) evil (ponērou) treasure (thēsaurou) [of the heart, v34, RE], throws out (ekballei) evil things (ponēra).


Mat. 12:36 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) I say (legō) to you (humin), that (hoti) every (pan) non-working (argon) statement (rhēma) which (ho) the (hoi) mortals (anthrōpoi) shall speak (lalēsousin), they shall give (apodōsousin) [a] word (logon) about (peri) it (autou) in (en) [a] day (hēmera) of judgment (kriseōs).


Mat. 12:37 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) out (ek) of the (tōn) words (logōn) of you (sou) you shall be made righteous (dikaiōthēsē);


and (kai) out (ek) of the (tōn) words (logōn) of you (sou) you shall be condemned (katadikasthēsē).”


In this context Jesus spoke of "a tree" (a person) who did beautiful and the produce of it him/her was beautiful (spoke God's Word with belief in his or her heart), or did rotten and the produce of it was rotten. 


Mat. 12:33 (LIT/UBS4) Either (ē) the (to) tree (dendron) did (poiēsate) beautiful (kalon) and (kai) the (ton) produce (karpon) of it (autou) [was] beautiful (kalon), or (ē) the (to) tree (dendron) did (poiēsate) rotten (sapron) and (kai) the (ton) produce (karpon) of it (autou) [was] rotten (sapron).


Because (gar) out (ek) of the (tou) produce (karpou) the (to) tree (dendron) is known (ginōsketai)!


In Mat. 19:16-30, in a context where Jesus teaches about how anyone can receive wholeness (erroneously called "salvation") the issue is about the trade-off people make between going after worldly wealth versus going after loving the God with all of one's heart, soul, mind, and strength, going after the God and the riches of the knowledge of his Word.  In verses 23-24 Jesus describes the almost impossibility of someone who has put physical wealth as their top priority to enter into the Kingdom of the Heavens.  And so his disciples, who were knocked out by this staggering truth, then wonder who can be made whole, since it is obvious that virtually everyone is working for physical abundance and prosperity, since we all have fleshly bodies which need to be supported? 


Their question back to Jesus caused him to "look into" them, to look into them more closely to try and ascertain their condition of belief in their hearts about this issue, of how can one spend his or her time working for the riches of the knowledge of God's Word, and thereby receive wholeness, while putting one's priority to work for physical abundance and prosperity second?  Apparently his disciples had forgotten, or misunderstood, another staggering truth, a great and precious promise of God, which Jesus had taught them earlier.


Mat. 4:4 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) [Jesus, v1, RE] having been caused to make [a] decision (apokritheis), he enunciated (eipen), “It has been written (gegraptai), ‘The (ho) mortal (anthrōpos) shall absolutely not cause himself to live (ouk zēsetai) upon (ep) bread (artō) alone (monō), BUT (all’), upon (epi) every (panti) statement (rhēmati) being caused to go out (ekporeuomenō) through (dia) [a] mouth (stomatos) of God (theou, YHWH)!’


Mat. 6:33 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) search (zēteite) first (prōton) for the (tēn) Kingdom932 (basileian) of the (tou) God (theou), and (kai) the (tēn) righteousness together with (dikaiosunēn) him (autou), and (kai) all (panta) these things (tauta) shall be added (prostethēsetai) to you (humin).


So we may say to ourselves, how is the God, my heavenly Father, going to supply all of my need (Phil. 4:19), not greed, while I spend so much time studying his Word from cover to cover so as not to live by bread alone, but upon every statement being caused to go out through a mouth of God?  If you think that on account of your lack of knowledge of exactly how he does it may be a good enough reason for you not to believe he can do it, then all the more reason for you to get busy gaining that precious knowledge of his Word (Mat. 6:26)!  Stand yourself alongside to your heavenly Father, and then ask him (Mat. 7:7-11, 21:22; John 15:7, 16, 16:23-24; James 1:5-6, 4:2-3; 1 John 3:22, 5:14-16)!


I recommend that all disciples of Christ Jesus read and study this passage and context (Mat. 6:1-33) very closely, so as not to forget it.


For other passages where Jesus "looks into" others to "see" whether there is belief in their hearts, and to "see" and understand their motivations, whether good or evil, see Mat. 6:26, Mark 10:21-27, Luke 20:17, John 1:42, and John 1:36 for John the baptist "looking into" Jesus to "see" that he is the son of the God.



1709 - one breathing (empneō, verb) - In Acts 9:1 Luke records that apostle Paul, Saul before his conversion, was "one yet still breathing of threat and of murder into the disciples of the Lord" against the believers of the way.  We in our English culture have an idiom which is very similar to this, breathing down someone's neck, used to describe the actions of someone who is threatening and closely pursuing someone.



1722 - in to me (en, preposition) - In John 15:7, if perhaps a disciple desires to continue to be a disciple of Jesus, through meeting all the requirements Jesus says in the context of John 15 and elsewhere, then that disciple stays "in to him", Jesus Christ, as a slip stays grafted in to the vine.  See John 15:1-10, where Jesus carefully and clearly explains this idiom.  According to the immediate context in John 15, the idiom in to me can be defined as watchfully keeping all of the Father's and Jesus' commands.  To watchfully keep (John 15:10) all the Father's and Jesus' commands and bring produce (John 15:2), necessarily requires that Jesus' disciples control what they think, say and do, to be the same things as what the Father and Jesus say his disciples are to think, say and do.  Therefore thinking, saying and doing all the things the Father and his son Jesus say we are to think, say and do, is staying and being in to him. 


The preposition in is seen in many similar phrases throughout God's Word, such as, in me, in Christ, in him, and so on (Rom. 8:1, 9:1, 12:5; 1 Cor. 1:2, 1:30, many more).  In a sentence, staying in him means staying within the boundaries of his will; thinking and saying and doing the injunctions of the Father and his son Jesus Christ.  Staying in him can be tantamount to staying in fellowship with the Father and Jesus Christ.  Staying in him can also mean keeping our new covenant responsibilities, doing the work we've been called to do according to our part of his one body.  The phrase in Christ, depending upon the immediate context, can mean a disciple of Christ Jesus doing and keeping the injunctions which our heavenly Father and Jesus have given to us, and/or describe a disciple of Christ Jesus who has believed upon Jesus name to the extent of having received a baptism from above by Christ Jesus in the heavenly Father's paternal gift of his holy Spirit.


Another common meaning of the usage of in throughout the apostle's writings is not so much idiomatic as it is literal, about the gift of God's paternal holy Spirit being in Christ Jesus, and it being in us as well, in ones who have received a new birth above (John 3), as Jesus Christ did shortly after his water baptism by John the Baptist.  And since the God's holy Spirit permeates our entire being, the apostles state that we are now in him as well.


For references to the God being in his son, Christ Jesus, and Christ Jesus being in his Father, the God, see Mat. 3:16, 9:8, 12:28, 14:2, 16:27-28; Mark 1:10, 6:5; Luke 3:22, Luke 4:1, 14, 5:17, 11:20; John 1:32, 3:2, 5:19-20, 26, 8:16, 19, 26-29, 38, 40, 9:33, 10:38*, 13:31-32, 14:10-11*, 16-20*, 28, 16:32, 17:20-23*; Acts 2:22*, 7:48, 10:38*; 17:24, 27-28; 1 Cor. 12:6, 13, 14:25, 15:28; 2 Cor. 1:22, 5:17-19*; Gal. 3:28; Eph. 1:22-23, 2:15-22*, 4:3-6*, ; Col. 1:18-20*, 2:9-10*.


For references to the God, and his son Christ Jesus, being in believers, and believers being in them, see Mat. 3:11, 10:20, 16:17, 18:20; Mark1:8, 13:11; Luke 3:16, 12:12, 24:49; John 1:33, 3:21, 4:23-24, 6:56, 8:36, 47, 10:38*, 14:16-20, 23, 26, 15:5-7, 17:20-23*, 26; Acts 1:5, 2:16-18, 7:48, 11:15-16, 17:24, 27-28; Rom. 2:29, 5:15-17, 6:23, 7:6, 8:4, 9-11, 23, 29, 13-17, 10:9-10, 12:4-5, 16:7, 11-13, 22; 1 Cor. 1:30, 2:4-5, 3:1, 16* 6:11, 6:19*, 9:2, 12:3, 6, 13, 14:25, 15:28; 2 Cor. 1:22, 2 Cor. 5:17, 21, 6:16*, 13:5*; Gal. 2:20, 3:28, 4:19; Eph. 1:10, 22-23, 2:15-22*, 3:16-19*, 4:3-6*; Phil. 1:27, 2:13, 3:3, 4:2, 9, 13; Col. 1:2, 18-20*, 27-28*,  2:6-10*; 2 Tim. 1:6, 14; 1 Pet. 1:10-11, 5:14; 1 John 4:4, 13-16*, 5:20; Rev. 1:10, 4:2, 17:3, 21:10.



1725 - in opposite (enanti, adverb) - In Acts 8:21 this idiom is used by apostle Peter to describe to Simon the magician what he needs to do in his heart, which is come to repentance and beg God for forgiveness for the thought of his heart, as if he was in opposite, i.e., directly in front of and face to face with God himself.  The idiom describes a communication which is totally honest and from one's heart, as if being communicated face to face, i.e., very intimately to God, in his very presence.  See come down opposite also.



1753 - energizing (energeia, noun) - Dr. Bullinger said: “Another synonymous word, not translated “power” is energeia, energy, power in action, effectual operation2;” Yes, but whose energy is it in us which is being energized into action?  Is it the weak energy of our own flesh, or the inherent power of God's Spirit within us which comes into manifestation?  This is a huge distinction which needs to be fully understood, and then believed by a disciple of Jesus Christ.  It is the energizing of the power of God's Spirit in us that we are to be desiring, and for which we are to be thankful, since we have no power in the weakness of only our flesh!


In Ephesians we can see again holy Spirit’s point blank Truth, that energeia refers to God’s spiritual power within a believer being energized by God himself.


Eph. 1:19 (LIT/UBS4) and (kai) what (ti) [is] the (to) overthrowing (huperballon) greatness (megethos) of the (tēs) work of inherent power (dunamēs) of him (autou) in (eis) us (hēmas), the ones (tous) believing (pisteuontas), down according to (kata) the (tēn) energy (energeian) of the (tou) power (kratous) of the (tēs) strength (ischous) of him (autou),


Eph. 3:7 (LIT/UBS4) of which (hou) I was caused to become (egenēthēn) [a] minister (diakonos), down on account (kata) of the (tēn) gift (dōrean) of the (tēs) grace (charitos) of the (tou) God (theou);


of the (tēs) [grace, RE] having been given (dotheisan) to me (moi) down according to (kata) the (tēn) energy (energeian) of the (tēs) inherent power (dunameōs) of him (autou)!


So far, from the immediate, local and remote associated contexts of energēma and energeia we can plainly see that the work of inherent power of which Paul speaks, “the gift of the grace of the God”, is the new birth above (John 3), the baptism in the gift of holy Spirit from Christ Jesus, as John the Baptist preached and taught (Mat. 3:11), and as apostle Peter preaches and teaches in his letters (1 Pet. 1:23), and upon which apostle Paul elaborates more fully in his letter in Rom. 8.


Eph. 4:16 (LIT/UBS4) out (ek) of whom (hou) all (pan) the (to) body (sōma), being called to join together (sunarmologoumenon) and (kai) being made to come together (sumbibazomenon) through (dia) the (tēs) supply (epichorēgias) of every (pasēs) joint (haphēs), down according to (kat’) [a/the] measure (metrō) of energy (energeian) in (en) each (hekastou) single (henos) part (merous), in (en) love (agapē) causes itself to make (poieitai) the (tēn) growth (auxēsin) of the (tou) body (sōmatos) of itself (heautou) into (eis) [a] domed-roof house3619 (oikodomēn)!


In Eph. 4:16 we see that the energizing of the gift in each believer is by God, and the subsequent house-building of the body of Christ is triggered by our free will choice to love.


Phil. 3:21 (LIT/UBS4) [lord Jesus Christ ...] who (hos) shall transform (metaschēmatisei) the (to) body (sōma) of the (tēs) humbling (tapeinōseōs) of us (hēmōn) to [a] form together with (summorphon) the (tō) body (sōmati) of the (tēs) glory (doxēs) of him (autou), down according to (kata) the (tēn) energy (energeian) of the (tou) inherent power (dunasthai) of him (auton), and (kai) [down according to, RE] all (panta) of the things (ta) to be put in submission5293 (hupotaxai) to him (autō)


(See Ro. 6:4, 8:11)


Col. 1:29 (LIT/UBS4) into (eis) which (ho) [mystery, v27, RE] I labor (kopiō) also (kai), causing myself to agonize (agōnizomenos) down according to (kata) the (tēn) energy (energeian) of him (autou), the (tēn) [energy, RE] causing itself to be energized (energoumenēn) in (en) to me (emoi), in (en) inherent power (dunamei).


Col. 2:12 (LIT/UBS4) you having been buried together with (suntaphentes) him (autō) in (en) the (tō) baptism (baptismō), in (en) which (ho) you also were awakened together with (sunēgerthēte kai) [him, RE] through (dia) the (tēs) belief (pisteōs) of the (tēs) energizing (energeias) of the (tou) God (theou), of the (tou) [energizing, RE] having awakened (egeirantos) him (auton) out (ek) of the (tōn) dead ones (nekrōn).


The last two occurrences of the noun energeia, 2 Th. 2:9,11, I believe should be read with a little more context around them;


2 Th. 2:8 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) then (tote) the (ho) lawless one (anomos) shall be revealed (apokalupsthēsetai), whom (hon) the (ho) lord (kurios) Jesus (Iēsous), the (tō) Spirit (pneumati) of the (tou) mouth (stomatos) of him (autou), shall annihilate (anelei).


And (kai) he shall idle down2673 (katargēsei) the (tē) epiphany (epiphaneia) of the (tēs) presence (parousias) of him (autou);


shall annilhilate - To capture or apprehend violently, as opposed to lambano which simply means to take.


he shall idle down – As an automobile engine which has its ignition switch turned off, the engine suddenly idles all the way down to a complete stop, and puts out no more energy.


2 Th. 2:9 (LIT/UBS4) of whose (hou) presence (parousia) is (estin) down according to (kat') the (hē) energy (energeian) of the (tou) Satan (satana), [the energy, RE] in (en) every (pasē) inherent power (dunamei), and (kai) signs (sēmeiois) and (kai) wonders (terasin) of falsehood (pseudous);


energy of the Satan – Satan’s energy, his inherent power to do false signs and wonders is going to be taken away from him violently.  Christ Jesus is going to do this to Satan when Jesus becomes present.


2 Th. 2:10 (LIT/UBS4) and (kai) [the energy, v9, RE] in (en) every (pasē) deception (apatē) of unrighteousness (adikias) for the ones (tois) being destroyed (apollumenois);


[for the ones, RE] [being] opposite473 (anti) of the (tēn) love (agapēn) of the (tēs) Truth (alētheias), of which (hōn) they absolutely did not (ouk) subjectively receive (edexanto) into (eis) them (autous) to be made whole (sōthēnai)!


opposite of the love of the Truth – The false signs and wonders and the truth of God’s Word were face to face, opposite from one another, as the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil (Satan) and the Tree of Life (Christ) were in the garden in Genesis.  God’s Word, the Truth, is always the opposite choice from choosing lies. All they needed to do in their minds was to turn themselves around 180° from believing the lies to loving and believing the Truth.  The two choices Adam and eve had in the garden are the same two choices all mortals have today, and have always had available to them.


of which [they] absolutely did not subjectively receive into them – God’s Word, the Truth, didn’t get passed their ears to penetrate into their minds.  They were focusing upon the false, the lying signs and wonders.  Without the knowledge of God’s Word, the Truth, they had nothing to which to compare the false signs and wonders, to determine if they were really of God.


to be made whole – The ones Satan was destroying with his false signs and wonders, refused to receive into their minds and hearts the Truth, the knowledge of God’s Word, subsequently through which they forfeited the new birth above in God’s Spirit, the baptism in the gift of holy Spirit from Christ Jesus (Mat. 3:11; John 3; Rom. 8; 1 Pet. 1:23); remaining as incomplete beings of only body and soul, as opposed to complete, i.e., whole beings of body, soul and Spirit (1 Thes. 5:23).


2 Th. 2:11 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) through (dia) [the sake, AE] of this (touto) the (ho) God (theos) sends (pempei) to them (autois) [the] energy (energeian) of [a] wanderer (planēs), into (eis) the (to) [energy, RE] of them (autous) to believe (pisteusai) the (tō) falsehood (pseudei);


of [a] wanderer – A common Greek idiom to describe one who is spiritually lost and can’t find the Truth of God’s Word.  A term given to the devil, Satan, and demon spirits as well (Eph. 4:14; 1 John 4:6; 2 John 1:7).





God’s initial work of inherent power in us is his giving to us as a gift, his Spirit, the new birth above (John 3), the baptism in God's gift of his holy Spirit from Christ Jesus (Mat. 3:11; Rom. 8; 1 Pet. 1:23).  Christ Jesus inherited it from God his heavenly Father.  Now, on his behalf, the one body of Christ inherits God's Spirit through his agent , Christ Jesus.  Then when we learn the knowledge of God’s Word, Truth, and then believe it, and then love others according to the knowledge of God's Word, as Jesus commanded us, then God energizes his Spirit within us to both desire to do, and to do God's will, which pleases him (Phil. 2:13).





1.  Hal Dekker,, Literal Idiomatic Translation (LIT)


Dr. E. W. Bullinger, A Critical Lexicon And Concordance To The English And Greek New Testament, 1999, Kregel Publications, p 593.



1755 - energizings (energēma, noun) - Dr. Bullinger said: “energēma, a work wrought in us and by us2.”  I don't agree with Dr. Bullinger 100%.  That energēma is a work wrought in us can be verified by its usage in 1 Cor. 12:10a:


1 Cor. 12:10a (LIT/UBS4) But (de) to another (allō) energizings (energēmata) of works of inherent power (dunameōn) [are given, v8a, RE].


But, as far as the work in us being wrought by us, in 1 Cor. 12:6 apostle Paul states that the energizing, the work wrought in us is not by us, or through our own agency, but by God working in us.  Yes, we must believe God’s Word to become eligible to receive God’s energizing of the gift of his Spirit within us, but it is God energizing his Spirit within us; it is God's prerogative.


1 Cor. 12:6 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) there are (eisin) distributions (diaireseis) of energizings (energēmatōn), but (de) the (ho) same (autos) God (theos), the one (ho) energizing (energōn) all (panta) of the (ta) [energizings, RE] in (en) all (pasin). 


(See Rom. 8:8-11; Eph. 1:19; Phil. 2:13; Col. 1:27-29; 1 Thes. 2:13)


Here in 1 Cor. 12:6 apostle Paul has clearly stated that the energizings in us are performed by God, not by us; and moreover, according to 1 Cor. 1:2,  that they are performed in the ekklesia, the one body of Christ, within each and every one of the ones having been made holy (Gk. hēgiasmenois) in Christ Jesus; who are the ones called aloud (Gk. klētois), the holy ones (Gk. hagiois).  This is stated again by Paul in Philippians;


Phil. 2:13 (LIT/UBS4) 2:13 Because (gar) God (theos) is (estin) the one (ho) energizing (energōn) in (en) you (humin);


both (kai) to desire (thelein) the (to) [wholeness, v12, RE], and (kai) the (to) [desire, RE] to be energized (energein) over (huper) [the sake, AE] of the (tēs) good expectation (eudokias) [of God, RE].


(See 1 Cor. 12:6, Eph. 1:19; Col. 1:27-29, 1 Thes. 2:13)



1758 - was having it in (enechō, verb) - In Mark 6:19 here is scriptural evidence of yet another ancient idiom which, over about two thousand years, has come to western civilization in the exact form in which it was used back then.  It is said that someone has it in for someone else when someone has an intention to do harm to someone else, on account of a lingering grudge against them.



1776 - crowded in (enochleō, verb) - This is a colloquialism meaning to literally or figuratively restrict one's freedom of motion, movement, and/or ability to function.  It is used in Luke 6:18 to describe the physical and/or mental and/or emotional debilitating effects which the demon spirits produced in the ones which were sick, who were coming to Jesus to touch him and become healed of their sicknesses.  It is used in the same sense in which our English idiom is used, when we may say, "Don't crowd me!", or "Don't crowd me in!"



1785 - injunction (entolē, noun) - A compound formed from joining the preposition en meaning "in", with telos meaning "end", to equate to "in the end", which compound apparently has become a noun to describe the final word on anything, and so therefore an injunction.  Any injunction of God and/or his son Christ Jesus is always the final word on any matter. 


Virtually all translations translate entolē as the English word command, which is a somewhat close synonym, but much too narrow in scope to reflect the breadth of meaning in all of the usages of entolē, and especially the way entolē is used contextually within God's Word in relationship to his covenant promises.  Apparently the meaning of the word injunction has morphed over the centuries into ambiguity, becoming synonymous with command, sanction, writ, advice, behest, direction, law, limitation etc..  All of the injunctions which God and his son Jesus Christ have expressed in the holy scriptures are in respect to keeping or breaking covenant responsibilities, whether the old or new covenant, in which the two parties, God and mortalkind, have reciprocate responsibilities to and for one another. 


An injunction restrains a person from beginning or continuing an action which is not approved by or mutually beneficial to all parties join in the covenant or contract.  What specifically makes the word command unfit to use to translate entolē is that it does not reflect in any way the concept of enjoinment, especially to the joining of God and mortalkind into a covenant contract in Jesus shed blood.  Whereas, the word injunction reflects the concept of keeping stipulations of a mutual covenant in which the two parties have joined into together. 


A covenant speaks of mutual responsibilities of each party toward the other.  Each party is held responsible to the other through mutual agreement to enter into the covenant together, to keep the stipulations given within the covenant contract each party has with the other.  Common in covenants and contracts, if one party doesn't keep their responsibilities toward the other party, the other party is not held liable to keep their covenant responsibilities, which means the stipulations apply reciprocally. 


This idea of two parties enjoined together into mutual responsibilities toward one another is not inherent in the word command, but is naturally inherent in the word injunction, which is why I translate entolē as an injuction throughout my translations of the new covenant writings.  I believe the use of the word injunction, while breaking translation tradition which may seem sacred to some, is absolutely true to the Greek text, and especially true to the meaning intended by holy Spirit.



1791 - entropy (entropē, noun) - A gradual decline of something into disorder.  In the context of 1 Cor. 6:5 apostle Paul, in his letter of teaching, reproof and correction to the believers in the area of Corinth, expresses his concern about their gradual decline in the assembly into disorder.  Paul is concerned with how they deal with one another when disputes between them arise over moral issues.  In chapter 5 Paul lists various moral issues which he believes are serious enough issues to call for those with them to be expelled from the assembly.  In chapter 6 Paul explains to the assembly the judicial process which they should use to expel those whose immoral behavior may leaven the whole assembly. 


In the context of 1 Cor. 15:34 apostle Paul speaks to the Corinthian believers about their ignorance in the knowledge of God's Word about the decline and disintegration of the human body, the entropy of it into death, and into what kind of body the dead shall be raised when their lives are restored by God.